Donald Scott: Voyager 1 Updates Solar Electron Flux

Posted: December 13, 2011 by tallbloke in Astrophysics, cosmic rays, Energy, Solar physics, solar system dynamics

This item is reposted from Thunderbolts, a site dedicated to understanding the role of electro-magnetism in the universe. H/T KuhnKat

Seems Voyager 1 has been able to supply us with more accurate data to enable new calculations of the Solar Electron Flux[1].

In the late 1970’s Ralph Juergens investigated how (or whether) the Sun could be obtaining its energy via an externally supplied flow of electrical power[2]. Now, in late 2011, we find that, because of data just recovered by the Voyager I space probe, Juergens’ estimate of the number of available incoming electrons was far too conservative. Either that, or his initial estimate of the Sun’s required cathode drop (voltage) was far too high.

A recent NASA release entitled NASA’s Voyager Hits New Region at Solar System Edge[3] provides the following important updates to the information Juergens used in making his estimates:

  1. Voyager 1 is now approaching the heliopause (the outer surface of the Sun’s plasmasphere). It is approximately 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the Sun. The probe has not yet crossed the boundary into interstellar space so this is a minimum estimate of the radius of the heliosphere.
  2. Voyager has detected a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons entering our solar system from elsewhere in the galaxy.
  3. The probe has been measuring the speed of the solar wind and for the first time in its journey, the wind now “blows back at us”.


The “solar constant,” defined as the total radiant energy at all wavelengths reaching an area of one square centimeter at the Earth’s distance from the Sun, is about 0.137 watts per square centimeter[4]. It works out, then, that the Sun must be emitting about 6.5×107 watts per square meter of solar “surface,” and the total power output of the Sun is approximately 4×1026 watts.

The hypothetical electric input must then provide a power of 4×1026 watts. Juergens posited that the Sun’s cathode drop is of the order of 1010 volts. In that event the total power input divided by that voltage is 4×1016amperes. The velocity of the interstellar winds is estimated[5] at 200 – 1000 km/s. This is in the range 2×105and 106 m/s. So let us suppose that the effective velocity of a typical interstellar electron is at least 105 m/s.

At the time Juergens made his calculation (1979), current estimates of the state of ionization of the interstellar gas were that there should be at least 100,000 free electrons per cubic m. But in light of the new updates (see #2 above), this is now increased 100 fold to 107. The random electric current of these electrons would be Ir = Nev where N is the electron density per cubic meter, e is the electron charge in coulombs, and v is the average velocity of the electrons (in m/s). Using these values, we find that the random electric current density is about 1.6×10-7 Amp per square meter through a surface oriented at any angle.

The total electron current that can be drawn by the solar discharge is the product of this random current density and the surface area of the sphere occupied by the cathode drop. We now have a fairly good measurement of how large this sphere is (see update #1 above). Its radius is approximately 1.8×1013 m, so its spherical boundary must have a collecting surface area of something greater than 4×1027 square meters.

Such a surface would then collect a current of interstellar electrons amounting to approximately 1.6×10-7Amp per square meter x 4×1027 square meters = 6.4×1020 A. (Some 16,000 times the number needed!). Of course this calculation involves many estimated quantities, but the point is that it is not reasonable to conclude that there are not enough electrons entering the Sun’s environment to power it. In fact, in light of the new NASA data, it is now possible to reduce our estimate of the Sun’s voltage to 1010/16,000 = 6.25 million volts.

NASA’s observation (#3 above) that the direction of the solar wind actually reverses (begins to flow sunward) out near the heliopause is further confirmation that the analogy between the behavior of the Sun’s surrounding plasma and what is observed in laboratory “gas” (plasma) discharge tubes is a valid one. Near the cathode of such a tube, a layer of electrons is often observed. Such a layer creates a reversal in the direction of the electric field (force per unit charge) applied to the positive charge carriers (+ions in the solar wind). The heliopause is a virtual cathode for the Sun’s plasma discharge.

A standard (hackneyed) criticism from skeptics of Juergens’ Electric Star hypothesis has always been, “where are all the necessary incoming electrons?” It appears NASA is in the process of finding them. Perhaps we could issue a press release of our own entitled “Dark Electrons Found by NASA.”

The Electric Sun is increasingly vindicated with each new piece of data NASA releases.

Donald E. Scott

References:

1.  From Appendix C of The Electric Sky, Scott, D.E., Mikamar 2006.
2.  Available: http://www.kronos-press.com/juergens/k0801-electric-i.htm
and http://www.kronos-press.com/juergens/k0802-electric-ii.htm
or http://www.kronos-press.com/juergens/1982-electric-solar-energy-juergens.pdf
3.  Available: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2011-372
4.  R.C. Wilson, Journal of Geophysical Research, 83,4003-4007 1978.
5.  Peratt, A. Physics of the Plasma Universe, Springer-Verlag, 1992.

Comments
  1. tallbloke says:

    This looks potentially (ok sorry) important to me, in terms of the ideas we’ve been developing at the talkshop concerning modulation of the Sun’s activity being caused by the presence of its dynamic planetary system.

    Let’s keep that in mind as one guiding focus in discussion of this article.

    But feel free to make wider ranging comments too. :)

  2. adolfogiurfa says:

    @Tallbloke: There is not any contradiction whatsoever, it just complements it. Different languages to interpret the same reality…and, last but not least, surely, if heard from the outside it sounds like a Do (“C”) :-) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:C_major.ogg

    Another reference, to read it before the above article : http://www.holoscience.com/news.php?article=ah63dzac

  3. Carla says:

    The velocity of the interstellar winds is estimated[5] at 200 – 1000 km/s.
    5. Peratt, A. Physics of the Plasma Universe, Springer-Verlag, 1992

    I have never seen estimates that ‘high’ for the Interstellar wind speeds. More like between 24-28 km/s. The above estimates make me feel very uncomfortable.
    Or does this mean that there is the potential for these interstellar winds to gust at times to 200-1000 km/s?
    Like turbulence in a boundary region?
    Add to that, this quote..””At the same time, Voyager has detected a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffusing into our solar system from outside, which is another indication of the approaching boundary.””

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2011-372

    Does this mean the solar system is embedded in a heavy wet electron blanket, a fast moving blanket?
    Usually they tell us coming from Sco-Cen association of in the direction of NGP. (ooops brain dribble..might be an indication that our system is above the Galactic plane)
    Thanks for putting this up Tallbloke.

  4. Carla says:

    For Interstellar wind speeds see pages 21-23 Estimated speeds for two clouds given on page 23.
    Results from the ISSI Workshop: “From the Outer Heliosphere to the Local Bubble: Comparison of New Observations with Theory”
    Jeffrey L. Linsky
    JILA/University of Colorado and NIST
    Boulder CO
    2008

    Powerpoint presentation by Linsky (6.8M, server might be slow, patience)

    [I can export as a PDF file if anyone cannot handle powerpoint, but is even larger and some slides are very slow rendering (pdf or pp). Ask if you want this as a file on WordPress servers. — Tim]

    [Reply] Linsky.pdf is now here: http://tallbloke.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/linsky.pdf 5.1meg – Rog

  5. tallbloke says:

    Hi Carla,

    Thanks for the links. Here’s a thought. Dayton Miller found an ‘Aether drift‘ , the velocity of which he estimated to be of a magnitude similar to the estimate of the velocity of the Solar system in its orbit around the galaxy. Could it be that the Solar system is moving faster than the LISM (local interstellar medium) and so the relative velocity is higher than the estimate you give for the speed of interstellar winds, in the direction of the bowshock?

    If so, this would reduce the total incoming electron figures considered by Prof. Scott by 50% because the high speed electrons would only impact half of the heliosphere. but would still give a higher velocity for those electrons entering the heliosphere than the 24-28km/s you quoted.

    Miller concluded that the Earth was drifting at a speed of 208 km/sec. towards an apex in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, towards Dorado, the swordfish, right ascension 4 hrs 54 min., declination of -70° 33′, in the middle of the Great Magellanic Cloud and 7° from the southern pole of the ecliptic. (Miller 1933, p.234) This is based upon a measured displacement of around 10 km/sec. at the interferometer, and assuming the Earth was pushing through a stationary, but Earth-entrained ether in that particular direction, which lowered the velocity of the ether from around 200 to 10 km/sec. at the Earth’s surface.
    Dayton Miller, “The Ether-Drift Experiment and the Determination of the Absolute Motion of the Earth”, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.5(2), p.203-242, July 1933.

  6. adolfogiurfa says:

    How does this solar system “bubble charge”interacts with our galaxy central power?
    Look the circuit, a beautiful “rosary” of connected stars:

  7. tchannon says:

    If the solar system is moving through an atmosphere any irregularity in the atmosphere has implication.

    Linsky states “TS moves in and out with the solar cycle.” (Terminal Shock)

    How does he know and why?

  8. tallbloke says:

    Tim, I would guess that has more to do with modulation in solar windspeed along with the solar cycle than anything external to the heliosphere.

    Unless it all works the other way round of course. :)

    As I recall we did have a discussion on WUWT about possible climate shifts caused by moving from lower to higher temperature local interstellar clouds a while back. This would be on much longer timescales than the ~11 yr solar cycle though.

  9. Ron Cram says:

    tallbloke,
    Very interesting post! Thank you!

  10. G. Karst says:

    The new intensities of the sol bubble interface, makes me wonder, if this may affect our view of the universe, from inside the bubble, looking outward. How may this distort incoming electromagnetic energies passing through this interface? Will this alter long established calculations?? GK

  11. adolfogiurfa says:

    @tchannon:
    If the solar system is moving through an atmosphere any irregularity in the atmosphere has implication….
    Of course there are implications but It has an electromagnetic “skin” ( a “double layer”) ….as the earth does….and as we do too.

  12. Michele says:

    Main question is not only in large system …
    But ….
    What is the electric charge in the small universe ?
    This is not fantasy or dream (see images of Adolfo)
    The nature in small or large speak, geometries,archetypes, etc. …
    All is easy.
    Many mathematical formulas or divisions….
    We have forgotten the simplicity of creation.
    I want a house with spirale & fibonacci sequence form. :smile:

  13. adolfogiurfa says:

    @Michele: What is the electric charge in the small universe ?
    There are dimensions (literally: Sizes), a series of three-dimensions, as the bubbles of suns, as the russian Matryoshkas:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matryoshka_doll

    Why then to dig deeper and deeper into infinite particles if we can see their bigger and more accesible replicas?

  14. Konrad says:

    I have a question for those studying the electric universe issue.
    It is known that flux tunnelling or transfer events occur regularly between Earth and the Sun. Jupiter has a far greater magnetic field than Earth. Do FTEs occur between the Sun and Jupiter and could these modulate solar cycles?

  15. P.G. Sharrow says:

    The little old satellite that “can”, is still doing real science exploration! May be some would want to read my explanation of what aether is.

    http://pgtruspace.wordpress.com/gravity-is-a-myth/aether/

    In bound “electron flow” is actually aether, inbound, under the influence of charge potential or gravity. 8-) pg

  16. Gerry says:

    The NASA press release, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2011-372,
    describes the latest findings this way:

    “Although Voyager 1 is about 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun, it is not yet in interstellar space. In the latest data, the direction of the magnetic field lines has not changed, indicating Voyager is still within the heliosphere, the bubble of charged particles the sun blows around itself. The data do not reveal exactly when Voyager 1 will make it past the edge of the solar atmosphere into interstellar space, but suggest it will be in a few months to a few years.

    The latest findings, described today at the American Geophysical Union’s fall meeting in San Francisco, come from Voyager’s Low Energy Charged Particle instrument, Cosmic Ray Subsystem and Magnetometer.

    Scientists previously reported the outward speed of the solar wind had diminished to zero in April 2010, marking the start of the new region. Mission managers rolled the spacecraft several times this spring and summer to help scientists discern whether the solar wind was blowing strongly in another direction. It was not. Voyager 1 is plying the celestial seas in a region similar to Earth’s doldrums, where there is very little wind.

    During this past year, Voyager’s magnetometer also detected a doubling in the intensity of the magnetic field in the stagnation region. Like cars piling up at a clogged freeway off-ramp, the increased intensity of the magnetic field shows that inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting it.

    Voyager has been measuring energetic particles that originate from inside and outside our solar system. Until mid-2010, the intensity of particles originating from inside our solar system had been holding steady. But during the past year, the intensity of these energetic particles has been declining, as though they are leaking out into interstellar space. The particles are now half as abundant as they were during the previous five years.

    At the same time, Voyager has detected a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffusing into our solar system from outside, which is another indication of the approaching boundary.

    “We’ve been using the flow of energetic charged particles at Voyager 1 as a kind of wind sock to estimate the solar wind velocity,” said Rob Decker, a Voyager Low-Energy Charged Particle Instrument co-investigator at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md. “We’ve found that the wind speeds are low in this region and gust erratically. For the first time, the wind even blows back at us. We are evidently traveling in completely new territory. Scientists had suggested previously that there might be a stagnation layer, but we weren’t sure it existed until now.”…

    For more information about NASA media events at the American Geophysical Union meeting, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/agu .”

  17. Gerry says:

    This recent 6.40 MB pdf has a lot of data plots, but is slow to download:

    http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2011/435/presentations/Strong.pdf

    The High-Energy
    Interstellar Medium
    Andy Strong
    MPE Garching
    on behalf of Fermi-LAT collaboration
    Cosmic Ray Interactions:
    Bridging High and Low Energy Astrophysics
    Lorentz Centre Workshop
    March 14-18 2011

  18. kuhnkat says:

    Gerry,

    thank you for the links.

  19. Mike says:

    ‘NASA’s Voyager Hits New Region at Solar System Edge’

    http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2011/dec/HQ_11-402_AGU_Voyager.html

    “Voyager is showing that what is outside is pushing back. … Like cars piling up at a clogged freeway off-ramp, the increased intensity of the magnetic field shows that inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting it.”

    Aether physically occupies three dimensional space and is physically displaced by matter. The aether displaced by the solar system is pushing back and exerting pressure inward toward the solar system.

    The pushing back and pressure exerted inward toward the solar system is evidence of the aether.

    The pushing back and pressure exerted inward toward matter by aether displaced by matter is gravity.

    In de Broglie wave mechanics the particle is in continuous energetic contact with a hidden medium. This energetic contact with a hidden medium is the state of displacement of the aether.

    A moving particle has an associated aether displacement wave. In a double slit experiment the particle has a well defined trajectory which takes it through one slit while the associated aether wave passes through both.

    ‘Ether and the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein’

    http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Extras/Einstein_ether.html

    “the state of the [ether] is at every place determined by connections with the matter and the state of the ether in neighbouring places, … disregarding the causes which condition its state.”

    The state of the aether at every place determined by connections with the matter and the state of the aether in neighboring places is the state of displacement of the aether.

  20. tallbloke says:

    Konrad says:
    December 13, 2011 at 10:14 pm
    I have a question for those studying the electric universe issue.
    It is known that flux tunnelling or transfer events occur regularly between Earth and the Sun. Jupiter has a far greater magnetic field than Earth. Do FTEs occur between the Sun and Jupiter and could these modulate solar cycles?

    That’ two questions. The answer to the first: “Do FTEs occur between the Sun and Jupiter” is an emphatic yes. This is evidenced by strong Aurorae near Jupiter’s poles (Saturn’s too).

    The second question: “could these modulate solar cycles?” is the question we have been investigating here at the talkshop for the last two years. We don’t have a definite answer, but the circumstantial and tertiary evidence points to a strong ‘maybe’ in my opinion.

    There are many threads in the archives I could point to, but you should do your own skimming. Maybe this one will help:

    http://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2011/08/05/jackpot-jupiter-and-saturn-solar-cycle-link-confirmed/

  21. tallbloke says:

    Michele says:
    December 13, 2011 at 6:38 pm

    We have forgotten the simplicity of creation.
    I want a house with spirale & fibonacci sequence form

    Gray showed some interesting relationships between triangular fibonacci numbers and orbits a while ago. Landscheidt showed how the golden section the Fibonnaci sequence is based on can be used to predict periods of high frequencies of solar flares.

  22. Michele says:

    The main street …Rog

    I remember.

    http://www.jupitersdance.com/thefinalwaltz/

    Viktor Schauberger has accomplished a lot of setup spiraling

    http://www.rexresearch.com/schaub/schaub.htm

    Do you know ” Pier luigi ghina ” ?

    http://www.rexresearch.com/ighina/ighina.htm

    Solar Rhythm according to Ighina

    Spiral reflection Earth —> Sun or Sun —> Earth

    Tornado, vortex water or Tesla coil or CME
    or snail…. :smile:

  23. Michele says:

    Sorry Rog,
    New Comment in moderation.
    How many number max “links” post up?

    [Reply] Five, but I just increased it to seven.

  24. tallbloke says:

    Leif Svalgaard says:
    December 13, 2011 at 11:22 am

    James F. Evans says:
    December 13, 2011 at 10:53 am
    Because there is tremendous political pressure to confirm those long held beliefs and therefore there is a strong tendency for “confirmational bias”. In other words, to find what one is looking for.

    This is even more the case for fringe-physics. The ’100-fold increase of high energy electrons’ is a prime example. These electrons are not solar wind or interstellar medium particles, but galactic cosmic rays and their density is extremely low [millions of times smaller than the number the EU folks claim]. Not that I think it makes any difference, but here are some pointers:

    http://www.astro.umd.edu/openhouse/programs/presentations/Moiseev_20110405.pdf

    http://heliophysics.nasa.gov/SolarMinimum24/papers/florinski_ferreira.pdf

  25. tallbloke says:

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111213164751.htm

    Suggests that although there is a low density of GCR’s their very high energies in comparisons with EMR from the Sun must compensate a lot for that.

  26. adolfogiurfa says:

    @Tallbloke: although there is a low density of GCR’s their very high energies in comparisons with EMR from the Sun must compensate a lot for that.
    Planck´s equation: E= hν ,where ν=C/λ…..
    Though some prefer other equations.

  27. adolfogiurfa says:

    @Tallbloke: Gray showed some interesting relationships between triangular fibonacci numbers..
    Would it seem that the cause of this is the “commanding angle” of 90ª between magnetism and electricity, where only the “legs” could change of length? The farthest from the center of the galaxy, the lowest the energy?

  28. Carla says:

    tallbloke says:
    December 13, 2011 at 3:35 pm
    .. Could it be that the Solar system is moving faster than the LISM (local interstellar medium) and so the relative velocity is higher than the estimate you give for the speed of interstellar winds, in the direction of the bowshock?
    I have seen a range of 0-50km/s for Interstellar clouds winds. But they say the Reynolds numbers are high and that there is much turbulence interstellar medium from cloud interactions alone that produce other smaller clouds through turbulent interaction. Just a prolonged gust up to 40 km/s would really muck up the numbers on heliosphere models. Lots more compression and thermal issues and more acceleration of particles at the shock fronts,available to just come right thru. I thought I read recently up 100 km/s. But gee up to 1000 km/s now thats scary business. Now maybe some trillion electron volt TeV GCR that had beentrapped in a interstellar size magnetic field bundle were freeed up by some turbulence.
    ok now its moving faster.
    Maybe times the heliosphere moves faster through interstellar space and maybe times it moves slower might depend on location. .At this point the heliosphere is being hit almost head on..and they are considering a second wind coming in from the south same side..now that would muck up current modelling too..

    Aether.. can’t go there not enough time in a day to read the things I want to read. But I’ll see your Aether and raise you a HelioCurrentSheet inclination, with the distribution of the Jovian mass around the solar system, thought I had a link to upwind and downwind whilst playing around with the ephemeris the other day. Some of the simulations we are currently seeing of other systems depict those bulging other planets and warped discs with warps and dents seemingly caused by those planets. The current sheet doesnt seem to care about the magnetic guass loss of sunspots either.

    But thanks for the wobble reply over on wuwt .. I noted something you quoted from Dicke 1961 or 62 about particle interactions within the suns corona. Made think about those little interplanetary bulges in the inner helio current sheet making all kinds of particle inter actions..nearer the sun.. solar cosmic rays..and anomalous cosmic rays..born and produced locally..

  29. Carla says:

    Tallbloke when you get a chance check out “sun-like star,” following article and its spiral from the birds eye view. very very cool spiral structure emerges. Then check the movie and note the planetary bodies inside the helio current sheet.

    Spiral Arms Point to Possible Planets in a Star’s Dusty Disk
    10.19.11

    A new image of the disk of gas and dust around a sun-like star is the first to show spiral-arm-like structures. These features may provide clues to the presence of embedded but as-yet-unseen planets.
    ..”What we’re finding is that once these systems reach ages of a few million years, their disks begin to show a wealth of structure — rings, divots, gaps and now spiral features,” said John Wisniewski, a collaborator at the University of Washington in Seattle. “Many of these structures could be caused by planets within the disks.”..

    http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/possible-planets.html

    hmm our system has planets and some might hefty ones toooo..

  30. Michele says:

    See my comment :

    http://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2011/12/13/donald-scott-voyager-1-updates-solar-electron-flux/#comment-10683

    http://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=18&month=12&year=2011

    As Comet Lovejoy recedes intact from its Dec. 16th close encounter with the sun, researchers are pondering a mystery: What made the comet’s tail wiggle so wildly in transit through the sun’s atmosphere? The effect is clear in this sequence of extreme UV images recorded by NASA’s STEREO-B spacecraft:

    and

    Comet & CME

    The Lasco C3 video below shows Comet Lovejoy surviving its nearth death experience around the Sun and a couple of Coronal Mass Ejections between Dec 15 and Dec 17.

    The invisible Electric universe :smile: