Relative to the previous illustration the planet is no longer magical, it possess gravity, having profound effects. The atmosphere is still optically transparent, no GHG.
Previous post of this series is here.
Convection and winds, are now present dayside, very effectively limiting surface temperature rise, the heat being swept away into the atmosphere so a normal lapse rate forms. Keep in mind that temperature does not equate to latent energy when there is variable gas pressure. The major point being the atmosphere now has a mechanical mixing mechanism which dominates over gas conduction.
Nightside something unexpected tends to happen. (I say tend because whilst this is not Earth, on Earth it is not everywhere on Earth and I want to avoid pedantic arguments, yes what I am showing is incomplete). Partial evidence from Earth is referenced later on.
“Night time cooling – radiation inversion. During the night time hours, there is no SW heating the ground, so the ground cools rapidly”
Nightside there is no power source for convection, less wind, only leaving conduction from the atmosphere to the surface and radiation from there to space. The cold air sinks, discovering unfortunately it’s already there, in consequence a temperature inversion forms, increasing temperature with height. Gas is a poor conductor of heat.
On dayside, convection pumped up atmospheric heat, but the heat is still there above the inversion where it stays all night. This is where GHG will work to breach the barrier radiating down to the cold surface, reducing day/night temperature differential, perhaps also allowing air to cool and sink forming weak reverse convection, all told an extremely complex situation.
In consequence for this planet the atmospheric temperature is elevated above the simple radiative case. Obviously there are many details and I am describing a simplistic situation for illustrative purposes.
Nightside inversions and other strange things, the balloon goes up
There is extensive evidence in lapse rate profiles vs. time of day from radiosond and sounders, if less evidence over oceans where inversions also form. I leave the majority of that reseach to the reader.
A little while ago Talkshop contributor Ben Wouters (BenAW), who in real life has extensive experience of atmospheric conditions pointed out a fascinating subject: Low Level Nocturnal Jets, which are related to inversions.
There was a problem with the remote web site he cited, now is a good time to point.
Author is Don Portman, Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric Science, The University of Michigan, member of American Meteorological Society.
He is also active in the Ballooning community where it is a bad idea to see a lovely early morning, inflate the balloon, up you go only to discover a howling gale just above the canopy. There again balloonists steer by using wind direction change vs. altitude. In cloudy England we are used to seeing clouds at different levels moving in different directions, it’s a layer cake.
Other material, a random selection
West Africa Monsoon http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/139902.pdf
West Africa as presentation http://www.cmmap.org/research/docs/aug11/bo-ls-rachel.pdf
Live atmospheric data, Chilbolton, England where real conditions can be monitored
Look at the Weather Web for live data which you will find almost no-where else and diurnal changes are clear.
the marks in the ploughed fields nearby are echo of history from a former RAF airfield, most governments sites have that origin, where we had hundreds dotted around from WW2 and before. http://www.controltowers.co.uk/C/Chilbolton.htm
Radiation Fog, Louisiana and Southeast Texas
Inversions happen in Australia too
You can help by giving reference to useful material for future reference, a blog like this is not talk only.
Please point out my mistakes. I’m trying to put up illustrations for enhancing understanding.
Next up, maybe, the atmosphere is no longer transparent.
 Two commenters on previous articles correctly pointed out winds from the Corriolis effect will be present. I hope avoiding details like that is not too damaging.
 Question has been asked of What is a normal lapse rate? Good question. I don’t know, lets leave that for discussion and any conclusion reached.
Article image is here as an OpenOffce/LibreOffice Writer file, WordPress workaround, wrong extension, is a drawing but opens correctly anyway.
Article posted by Tim Channon, co-moderator