Richard Holle: The big picture

Posted: January 31, 2011 by tallbloke in solar system dynamics

All of the universe affects the rest of it, as all sits in a common bowl of gravitational and magnetically connected and driven mass of ions and regular atoms, that respond to the basic physics detailing the “normal rules or laws”. To think that there are voltages or ions that move without magnetic fields attached violates first principles.

The stars are surrounded with a ion shell the heliosphere, that protects them [like ferro fluid particles with oxalic acid coats to keep them from merging as they float around] from running into each other the outer surfaces are composed/covered with free electrons hanging on the outer edge of the magnetic fields.

The mutual static repulsion keeps the stars separated just as mutual static repulsion keeps the neutralized moisture in a cloud from condensing. As the background cumulative charge gradient increases it reduces droplet size and polarizes them. With the added side effect of lowering albedo by becoming more transparent to short wave sun light.

The galactic magnet fields are also influenced by these same basic rules of action as well, which leads me to the conclusion that the interactions of the composite system of magnetic interactions from the rotation of the Galaxy, and the declinational movement of the solar system in that larger frame of reference, as well as the density waves that propagate around driving the spiral arm flux variances give rise to the longer term cyclic climatology of the Earth.

The heliopause of our sun Sol, seems to have auroral knotted bands (recently spotted ribbons of ion activity) on its leading side as it progresses through the interstellar gases and dust clouds, the solar system passes through in its travels. I think that this is due to the conductance of the galactic fields into and through the heliopause, coupling through the polar regions of the sun and planets, altering the interactions of inertial and inductive drives to near stable states at or near equilibrium.

The residual shifts in balance are felt as steering currents in the slow transition of the orbital dynamics and swaying of the solar system as it winds its way through the static charges on heliopause, as Sol makes its way through the gravitational attractions and radiation pressures gauntlet, shoved around ever so slowly by the rest of the individual stars.

The magnetically permeable inductive components of planetary bodies and their moons are susceptible to Ohms laws, and Maxwells power equations, that drive the interactions of electromagnetic forces that equally apply to the full frequency spectrum from near DC standing magnetic fields to the most energetic particles seen.

All electronic gadgets, radios, toys, and computers work with these modulation techniques derived from compounding the effects of the individual components, through inductive and capacitive couplings into and through semi conducting amplifiers, filtering for the frequency range required for the end function desired. The formula for solving the initial circuit design has long been known and has been taken to almost single atomic scale in state of the art semiconductor manufacture.

So we should be able to understand, by the application of these common formula, and to figure out from the sizes of the forces at work, the interactions of the sun with the planets and their moons, by determining the shifts of flux of the magnetic fields, with the shifting density and speed of the solar wind, in their resultant periodic harmonic interactions as they became stable over the past 4.8 billion years.

When the Ulysses satellite was on polar orbit of the sun “the control center scientists were amazed that the patterns usually seen in the solar wind were still there, but also much stronger in the polar regions than the known levels in the neutral current sheet they expected to see levels of magnetic activity about the same, instead of increased at the poles by several orders of magnitude.”

To me this meant that the main crux of magnetic connections between the sun and planets is following the same patterns as the normal concentrations of field lines distribution at the poles/apexes (as is seen in lab magnets), and the large sweeping fields that are interacting with each other and coupling to the solar wind that fills the heliopause, are weakest along the circumference, neutral current sheet, or equatorial regions, of the bodies involved.

The peak strength of coupling is out side of the ecliptic plane, not just only flowing with the neutral sheet of the solar wind, but also have a greater polar fields focus of increased concentration down onto the poles of the planets, as evidenced by the polar Auroral displays from the much larger magnetic flux in the loops coming from further off of the ecliptic plane.

As a result the makeup of the planetary interaction periods have become some what stable, and have formed harmonic coupled interactions between themselves, and the non-random long term slower periods. The outer planets have formed a resonance pattern between them selves, and are influencing the solar movement around their composite barycenter, shifting the drive of the sunspot cycles to the point of creating the strength and length of the individual solar cycle periods. The inner planets stay centered on the center of mass of the sun, and orbit the center of mass of the sun so still inductively “feel” the combined merged influences of the two sets of [inner and outer] harmonics.

I have not read much about the relationships of the tilt of the magnetic poles of most of the planets and the sun from their spin axes. There is a known cyclic periodicity due to the procession of the tilt of the Earths axis and also its orbital obliquity periodicity, that shows up in the long term climate fluctuations.

I think even this has something to add our knowledge base about long term climate effects. In the common hospital use of MRI scanners, the magnetic induction pulses are used to flip atomic spin axes in line with the dense magnetic fields momentarily formed with pulse current on, and watching the return to ambient spin axes when current goes off.

If people have learned to control the effects of the spin shifting, could not these same effects also occur in nature, being as they are so predictable? It is then just a matter of scale, If you apply the calculations with the right power increase needed to satisfy the balance of the equation, the same effects should occur with reference to stars and planets.

With the advent of more satellites measuring more parameters of the solar winds interactions with the magnetospheres of the planets and their moons, we will have actual values of the forces and periodicities to plug into the established electromagnetic formula to derive answers to the questions of total power and effects of interplanetary solar wind conduction patterns.

If all of the planets and the sun are running along, in near balance with the slow ongoing changes in out lying fluxes upon the solar system, disruptions in the periodic patterns should be minimal, with much greater stability being found in the harmonic patterns in the interactions between the planets of the solar system, as a result milder climate with less wild extremes would dominate at times of stability.

Currently the magnetic poles of the sun are running ~12 degrees off of its vertical axes of rotation, with a period of rotation of ~27.32 days as a result the Earth and Moon themselves trying to keep in balance move above and below the ecliptic plane alternately, while the Earth/Moon system barycenter scribes a smooth ellipse [with bulges] responding to the gravitational and tidal tugs of the outer planets as we pass them about every 12 months plus a few days.

The resultant periodic 27.32 day flux of the polarity of the solar wind as it passes the Earth creates and drives the declinational swings North and South in the two bodies, as a giant pulsed oscillator circuit. This declinational energy gets energy dampened by the tidal drag because of frictional energy losses to the fluidity of the various parts of the Earth, small solid core, outer liquid core, fluid mantel, and fragmented floating crust. The crust is itself creeping along tectonically in response to the dance of the combination of the additions of the other planetary tidal, gravitational, and electromagnetic induction fluxes that help to keep the inner fluids warm.

The further off of vertical, the axis of the sun’s magnetic poles, the more differential electromagnetic energy is available to be driven into the lunar declinational movement cycle balanced by the tidal dampening into the Earth. The greater the combination of the outer planetary modulated solar magnetic impulse input and/or the stronger the total magnetic flux, the greater the resultant tectonic turmoil, and the more extreme the weather and climate.

The weaker the magnetic fields of the sun relative to the near DC fields of the galactic background levels, and the more vertical aligned will be the magnetic poles of the fields of the sun, the result will be that less energy gets driven into the lunar declinational movement and consequently the total resultant tidal dampening energy transferred into the Earths global circulation and climate system.

As the spin axes and magnetic axes of the sun approach a more straight on alignment, the whole declinational drive component of the Moon orbital dynamic will decrease, to maybe as little as a degrees either side of the ecliptic plane, [from the current +/- ~5 degrees] changing to a more synergistic combination of the solar and lunar tidal bulge cumulative effects at an angle of ~23.5 +/_.5 referenced to the equator, keeping the atmospheric global circulation in the kind of high turbulence blocking pattern, type of weather we have been having the past two years and maybe the next two as well.

When continued past the normal length of time (about 3 years on the down and up side) in the 18.6 year variation of this strong meridional transfer mechanism for transport of equatorial heat towards the poles, it would become stalled in this state, of the most active section of atmospheric lunar tidal bulge effects, (due to being coupled in sync to the solar tides as well), the long term trend then becomes a constant la nina, and an ice age sets in.

Just as in MRI scanning the initial strong magnetic pulsed spin flip is nearly instantaneous, and does not seem to affect the covalent bonds the atoms are part of, so maybe the solar magnetic orientation to polar axes of rotation, flip is hardly noticeable over 100 years or less. Just as the wandering of the Earth’s magnetic field pole positions are hardly noticed by the public.

The on going dampening of the tidal movement of the lunar declinational extent at culmination, would regulate the change in the lunar culmination angles resulting dropping rate due to the actual amount of tidal dampening load transferred to the Earth. As the declination off of the ecliptic plane drive energy lessens and becomes slowly coupled out by tidal interaction, and the Lunar orbital diameter expanded slightly to compensate.

This mechanism would explain the rapid onset of ice ages, and then the re-flip to off axes solar magnetic polar alignment, would renew the lunar declinational driver system again and could explain the pulsation type exit usually seen from ice ages. Failed restarts could explain the Younger Dyas type periods, and minor modulations might also explain some of the related pulses during ice ages.

Research into what shifts the orientation of the galactic magnetic fields [traveling density waves, new star growth, or local super nova] would then give usable values to estimate the length, starts, and ends of interglacial periods. Which I think is in the long run more important to the human race and most life on earth than the CO2 cyclic absorption and release by the cooling and warming of the oceans.

For realistic application to the shorter term current interglacial period, the best use of these ideas is in the application of the study of the harmonics of the inner planetary system interactions from the much more recent history of the past three to five 6558 day cyclic periods of 240 X 27.32 day declinational periods, that shows analog synchronization of the inner planet harmonic effects combined with the additional synchronization of all of Lunar, perigee / apogee, phase, and declinational tidal effects on the weather, from the past three cycles as seen on the daily maps here.

http://www.aerology.com/national.aspx

The problem left is that the outer planet’s set of harmonic patterns are synchronized together and driving the solar sun spot cycle modulation that is most of the rest of the overall solar wind speed and density, magnetic, and TSI modulation.

The complete long period of compounded modulation is maybe as Ulric Lyons suggests 179.5 years long as the effects of the outer planetary returns driving the solar sunspot cycles due to SS Barycenter displacement timed to Uranus / Neptune synod conjunctions. This would be 10 cycles of the 17.95 year period of the inner planet harmonic frequency, to one [179.5 year] cycle of the outer planetary return pattern.

The available data base gets extremely thin out ~180 year ago, due to data limitations, I have so far stayed with just looking at the last three cycles of 6558 days of ~17.95 years.

Tallbloke and others have more focused their concern with the effects of the tidal, gravitational, and maybe magnetic effects of the outer planets having an effect upon the sun via the displacement of the sun around the SS barycenter, which the inner planets seem to be bound to follow. I will leave that part to them to explain, I am currently more concerned with the inner planet and lunar tidal harmonics.

Below is but one illustration of how the Null hypothesis can be further defined.

On April 20th of 1993 we had the most recent synod conjunction of Neptune and Uranus, which the Earth passed on July 12th of 1993, presenting as an epic precipitation surge globally with heavy rains through the Northern Hemisphere summer and massive flooding of several river system around the world.

It is my contention that the increase in magnetic couplings through the polar magnetic field connections induces a homopolar generator charge increase at these times and a quick global discharge just after synod conjunction.

The results of these increases in pole to equator charge increases, drives positive ions off of the sea surface along the ITCZ, where by mutual static repulsion of the increased charge on condensation nuclei inhibits cloud formation and precipitation, and at the same time allows more solar Short wave (SW) radiation to reach the tropical sea and land surfaces, promoting rapid warming driving ENSO extremes, with the rapid precipitation that results on the global discharge side, post synod conjunction, leaving clearer skies for additional warming after the severe weather that produces the flooding subsides.

The lunar declination phase of the 18.6 year Moon cycle was in an increasing through 23.5 degree culmination angle at the same time, being in phase with the temperature increases. By early 2005 the declinational angle at culminations was at its peak extreme, and the distance between Uranus and Neptune was separating again to about 29 days apart, August 8th of 2005 for synod of Earth and Neptune and September 1st of 2005 for synod conjunction of Earth and Uranus.

The Southeast gulf coast was ravaged by Katrina and Rita as a direct result of these influences. Combining with the 27.32 day period lunar declinational tides culminations they rode in on, to produce the storm intensity that resulted.

As the outer planets Neptune and Uranus, continued to separate and the lunar declinational angle shifted past peak angle at culmination the resultant peak outer planetary induced warming period has shifted further into the late Summer and now is occurring in the Fall in 2010. The reason I think the last season 2010 was so active but not as powerful in ACE production as 2005 was due to the addition of Jupiter in Synod conjunction on April 3rd in 2005 kicking things off with a surge of tornadoes, and on the 21st of September 2010 with Uranus on the same day, creating a late fast finish in 2010. But having a halfhearted start of a season in 2010 as a result of the difference.

Over all the whole period of the close Neptune and Uranus synods in the mid to late summer allowed the extra clearing of clouds and resultant heating for most of the last 15 years of the SST and ENSO intensity periods, CO2 just was in the air along for the ride.

This is all part of the 60 year patterns in the weather cycles, and can be explained as such. Now that the outer planet synod conjunctions of the Earth with Neptune and Uranus are moving into the fall and early winter, we can expect them to produce the increased snowfall events and cold polar blasts being seen in both hemispheres.

Trying an experiment by using this natural periodicity of the repeating patterns of the composite effects of the inner planets and the Earth/Lunar/Solar 27.32 day harmonics as a natural analog showing a base length of the 6558 days repeated three times as an ongoing day to day forecast gives enough weight to the promise that this cyclic pattern in the natural variability is actually driving about 85% of the short term variability of the weather.

The longer cycles already identified with the progression of the Milankovitch Ice Ages orbital interactions, give me encouragement that the midterm length cycles associated with the outer planet Synod periods and possible effects on solar cycles will be fruitful as well.

With all of the public grant funds going to the CO2 boondoggle, it is necessary that some funding be made available for the parts of the climate research endeavor that have been fruitful already, and form the basis of most of the accepted body of knowledge of how the null hypothesis works.

With the investigation of these methods of predicting the extreme effects of the weather patterns they produce, long range forecasts for both weather and climate will become possible. I am betting my life saving and the rest of the creative efforts of my life time on it.

Comments
  1. Great Richard Holle!. Finally we are approaching real knowledge, objective science, while settled science just can be “amazed”, “surprised”,etc.

  2. P.G. Sharrow says:

    Richard, it appears to me that you and those that have worked with you have made a very good start. Roger also appears to have a good general idea of most of the interlocking parts that ties the solar system together. The timing of astral bodies movements show us that there is solid connections between them and the solar furnase.
    The dance of magnetic and gravitation fields cause changes in weather paturns as well as the energy input from the sun. It appears to me that a block or box diagram is needed and then the details of each box to be filled in. There are just too many details to wrap a mind around at one time. Your work looks to me like a good general outline, as you can already do a fairly good job of long term forecast, much better then the professional quessers. As to official support, the official people have everything to lose by this effort, I doubt that they would agree to any support to this effort. Still the best of luck to those that try. pg

  3. Gray says:

    Interesting, Richard.

  4. Roy Martin says:

    In the depths of the temple. But not yet with a capital ‘T’.

  5. tallbloke says:

    Roy, I agree. The reason I posted Richard’s work (as well as copying it to his page linked on the top bar) is that it is a lucid vision backed by disparate observations of co-varing phenomena which helps direct our thinking towards designing the experiments which can confirm or disprove the ideas. In the current funding climate this means working out which datasets we can winnow valuable clues from, and redoubling our efforts to codify observations into matrices which can help differentiate chance coincidences from regular patterns modulated by changing spatial relationships.

    This blog does not shrink away from informed speculative thought, it regards it as the antennae of human knowledge feeling the way towards potential future theory.

    I don’t want to see Richard having to spend all of his retirement money on this, so I am devoting some of my energy and time to trying to get funding for this important research.

  6. stan says:

    first “principles” (not principals)

    [Reply:] Thanks, fixed

  7. @Tallbloke: I don’t want to see Richard having to spend all of his retirement money on this, so I am devoting some of my energy and time to trying to get funding for this important research.
    That is a noble cause indeed. As that research will bear fruits for the generations to come. This is neither modern nor post-modern science, this is simply science, real knowledge, which needs to be revitalized for the welfare of the human kind.

  8. Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space?
    THE ETERNAL SOURCE OF ENERGY OF THE UNIVERSE,
    ORIGIN AND INTENSITY OF COSMIC RAYS *
    by Nikola Tesla
    http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1932-10-13.htm

  9. If we read the following very didactic lessons, having in mind the ondulatory characteristics of the Solar System, we will, perhaps, be illuminated by the sudden spark of realization of its marvelous analogy.
    http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_1/1.html

  10. Yes it was just an outline attempt, I need to go back in and flesh out a lot of the gaps left and set up blocks for areas that other peoples research can fill the overview gaps, I can see thousands of pages of finished details yet to be assembled.

    Movies to be made, changes to be made to my beta forecast method, I am now in Mesa Az. after a 22 hour drive in blowing snow, with temps between +6 degrees F and -11.5 degrees F 1390 miles total trip.

    First orders of business will be purchase a I phone, new dvd drive, stand alone firewire 2Tb Hard drive, and data base for Australia, England (or better yet all Europe), Canada has been downloaded and is being tabled now, to change USA 48 maps to whole North America maps.

    Have high speed connection and direct programmer support available now, still awaiting report on beta forecast form accuracy from Eric Floehr, about two more weeks aprox.

  11. tallbloke says:

    Hi Richard, another long road trip, in harsh conditions. Respect.

    Great to hear things are moving forwards, and I’ll be happy to fill in those gaps I can when you set up your page some more.

    Don’t commission the animations yet. I’m sure we can find some willing people to assist, or get the project funded by someone. I’m working on it. Have you written a full project specification yet? It will help enormously with trying to convince a University research department or other pure research organisation of its value.

  12. At the expense of repeating myself from some of another posting….

    I have been using a 2002 set of the Coop summary of the daily records of all ~22,000+ reporting stations, from my examination of the original records from several local stations compared to the Coop TD3200 data set it appears that the archived daily raw data is still uncorrupted and unadjusted, it would seem they took the lazy way out and only adjusted, modified the monthly average data from the stations I looked at, hiding the small changes in the process of getting the (wanted) average with out quoting all of the meta data of the stations used each day for the whole month.

    For my analog forecast purposes the raw daily data from all reporting stations is used for maximum definition of the effects of large bodies of water, UHI effects, on an average distance of 15 to 20 miles apart, girding the data on 0.1 degree Lat/Log coordinates, post beta product with an improved 1 F (single degree contour line steps for temperatures, and a better method of seasonal shift adjustments, that yields a better following of extreme excursions of invading cold air masses).

    Several of the other changes I want to make are listed below;

    Expand the areas I forecast for, to other areas with good raw data coverage, increase the temperature graduation contours on the maps to 1 degree increments instead of 10 degrees, so lake effect snows and UHI from major cites, that is there now hidden in the poorly defined present 10 degree F contours drawn from the data can be seen clearly.

    With an improved gridding program for increased tracking of station meta data, and adding an algorithm for excising the past pulses (of about 5 to 7 days in length) of high precipitation trends due to Past cycle outer planet Synod conjunctions, and compiling from their repeating patterns that every year repeats slightly later to form a composite set of values one can expect the outer planetary interferences (in the sun/earth/lunar base pattern) for the current period to be reinserted into the formation process of the current grid from which to generate the maps.

    So the outer planetary Synod conjunction effects as well as the changes in solar electromagnetic effects can be adjusted for, with courtesy copy of software and supporting data for Pier Corbyn’s use if he so desires.

    As a usable working tool for the understanding of the dynamics at work I hope to put together a program for the selection and viewing of stand alone Maps for each of the past cycles, as well as a composite of the three compared to the most recent (yesterdays, and past 60-90 days actuals) in a progression of synchronized animated series of concurrent surface maps, and satellite photos from which a forecaster could evaluate the differences from past cycles and the current weather to tweak the next 60-90 days into a more interactive forecasting process than now used.

    As long as the original raw data is still within a degree of what was written down years ago when collected, it should be easier to forecast with in 5 degrees for more than a week and the adjusting of the real time forecast with the above past data viewing tool should be an interesting piece of open source free software.

  13. Been driving since 1965 have put over 100,000 miles on 11 vehicles and over 40,000 on several older clunkers I learned to drive in, maintenance was a sometimes daily habit/requirement, learned a lot that way. Then more miles in vehicles I did not own in the service or for some of the maintenance jobs where van or pick up provided for service calls.

    Lots of blowing snow with 1/4 to 1/2 mile visibility is normal for a native Kansan. So is muddin down a muddy dirt road at times. When younger I used to like to drive in excess of 100MPH with the lights off on full moon lit nites, got radar clocked at 152mph one night that way back in 1967.

    *crazy is better than bored*

  14. Ulric Lyons says:

    Hi all. There was a keen solar caused drop in temperatures July 1993, it is the short term temperature changes that drive these flood events. It works round the other way in winter and takes an uplift in temperature to increase precipitation.

  15. P.G. Sharrow says:

    Ulric Lyons says
    February 16, 2011 at 1:18 am

    As a body of air cools it gets dryer through condensing out as fog (clouds) snow or rain and releases heat. In the summer it gets wet and cooler at ground level due to evaporation that sucks up the local heat. In the winter relatively wet warm air moves to displace cold air and gives up heat as it rains or snows out as it cools. pg

  16. tallbloke says:

    Not forgetting that the U+N synodic conjunction was in ’93.

  17. Ulric Lyons says:

    P.G. Sharrow says:
    February 16, 2011 at 4:24 am

    As we all know, extra heating during summer months can make it completely parched at ground level, as well as holding back the rain even if clouds are present. We saw plenty of this last summer, cloud filled skies but no rain.
    There are two dominant solar factors driving weather, one dictates the timing of weather fronts, the second determines the temperature profile. During summer months, when the solar signal is positive for temperature, rainfall will be reduced, even though weather fronts may be passing through. Higher levels of heating may produce high pressure blocking, displacing the fronts around the landmass.
    A drop in the solar signal during summer increases precipitation, and the amount of increase is dependant on the size of the temperature drop, so it is the temperature differential that is all important, the rate and size of change.
    I usually manage to get the timing of the solar forced temperature changes to within one day, and the the timing of the weather front arrival often within half a day latitude, all by empirical means. This would be a general signal for one hemisphere, look-backs to good analogue years are then employed to give regional long range forecasts for circulation and jet stream positioning.
    I know orthodox meteorology regards increases in winter precipitation as just due to warmer fronts entering a colder region, but that is because they are not aware of the short term variations in the solar signal that are really driving daily surface temperature changes AND circulation changes. But given an uplift in the solar temperature signal during winter months, there will be an increase in precipitation every time.
    So while I have little knowledge of atmospheric physics and conventional meteorology, I can say which days it will rain, and by how much, may months in advance, purely from the knowledge of what is actually driving it all.

  18. P.G. Sharrow says:

    Ulric Lyons says:
    February 17, 2011 at 10:54 am
    “I know orthodox meteorology regards increases in winter precipitation as just due to warmer fronts entering a colder region, but that is because they are not aware of the short term variations in the solar signal that are really driving daily surface temperature changes AND circulation changes. But given an uplift in the solar temperature signal during winter months, there will be an increase in precipitation every time.”

    Ulric is correct. Modern meteorology grew up from surface data work. They have a fairly good grasp of those machinics but no idea of the none earth drivers. They are fairly good at 24 to 72hour projections but poor for long term “quesses”. Richard Holle gets the very long term quite well but the day to day is a bit off. Solar pushes and pulls the weather on the daily as well as long term. A marriage of all studies will be nessassary to get a real grasp on cause and effect. pg

  19. steven mosher says:

    Richard,

    if you are going to use raw COOP data you had best pause. GIGO.

  20. tallbloke says:

    Steve, is there any chance some assistance could be offered to Richard regarding daily data?

    Thanks.

  21. Steve what is the problem you find with the COOP data set? Do you know of another data set with as complete or better coverage?

  22. Ulric Lyons says:

    Richard…

  23. Ulric
    Had to read that a couple of time to absorb it all, makes a lot of sense that the PG should vary with the aerosol content from local smoke production. Much could have been learned from monitoring the PG in the Moscow area last summer?

    Maybe we will get another chance again this next summer? Thanks for the awareness expansion into what has been known in related areas since Franklin flew kites waiting to build church steeples.

  24. P.G. Sharrow says:

    Perhaps a better understanding of “warpage of the dielectric” would be in order. In this case warpage caused by gravity.

    The electron shell of the atom is the physical surface or force field that is presented to the rest of the world. The nucleus is the mass of the atom and the part greatest effected by acceleration or gravity. In warpage the nucleus is displaced from it’s centered position. Gravity displaces or warps the atmospheric electrical charge about 300 volts per meter, less the local conductivity and turbulence. During a lightning discharge, the discharge starts at the ground level and cascades up like a sand pile will cascade if you remove a bit from the base of the pile. Tesla described the atmosphere as a charged many layered capasitor. This was the basis of his power transmission system. pg

  25. Just up loaded a slightly more fleshed out edit of the original post.
    The posts in my home page blog are the basis for some of the footnotes to be added to this post asa I get the time. Roger feel free to add links for the references you see that are obvious.