Juno finds that Jupiter’s gravitational field is “askew” 

Posted: October 30, 2017 by oldbrew in Astrophysics, atmosphere, research, solar system dynamics

Juno probe

There’s nothing like observation for contradicting, or supporting, theory and the Juno probe has already upset a few ideas that scientists had about Jupiter.

Since it established orbit around Jupiter in July of 2016, the Juno mission has been sending back vital information about the gas giant’s atmosphere, magnetic field and weather patterns, as Universe Today reports.

With every passing orbit – known as perijoves, which take place every 53 days – the probe has revealed more interesting things about Jupiter, which scientists will rely on to learn more about its formation and evolution.

During its latest pass, the probe managed to provide the most detailed look to date of the planet’s interior. In so doing, it learned that Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is askew, with different patterns in its northern and southern hemispheres.

These findings were shared on Wednesday. Oct. 18th, at the 48th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division of Planetary Sciences in Provo, Utah.

Ever since astronomers began observing Jupiter with powerful telescopes, they have been aware of its swirling, banded appearance. These colorful stripes of orange, brown and white are the result of Jupiter’s atmospheric composition, which is largely made up of hydrogen and helium but also contains ammonia crystals and compounds that change color when exposed to sunlight (aka. chromofores).

Until now, researchers have been unclear as to whether or not these bands are confined to a shallow layer of the atmosphere or reach deep into the interior of the planet. Answering this question is one of the main goals of the Juno mission, which has been studying Jupiter’s magnetic field to see how it’s interior atmosphere works. Based on the latest results, the Juno team has concluded that hydrogen-rich gas is flowing asymmetrically deep in the planet.

Another interesting find was that Jupiter’s gravity field varies with depth, which indicated that material is flowing as far down as 3,000 km (1,864 mi). Combined with information obtained during previous perijoves, this latest data suggests that Jupiter’s core is small and poorly defined. This flies in the face of previous models of Jupiter, which held that the outer layers are gaseous while the interior ones are made up of metallic hydrogen and a rocky core.

As Tristan Guillot – a planetary scientist at the Observatory of the Côte d’Azur in Nice, France, and a co-author on the study – indicated during the meeting, “This is something that was not expected. We were not sure at all whether we would be able to see that… It’s clear that giant planets have a lot of secrets.”

Continued here.

  1. oldbrew says:

    Headline: Juno finds that Jupiter’s gravitational field is “askew”

    Report: In so doing, it learned that Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is askew
    – – –
    gravitational field = magnetic field ?

  2. JB says:

    “Another interesting find was that Jupiter’s gravity field varies with depth, ”

    This has been known about earth’s gravity field since the invention of the swinging pendulum. If anything, this should be a confirmation of expectation.

    Just what do they mean by “Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is askew”? The magnetic field is doing its thing. It’s the conceptions of the scientists that are “askew.” Now if they were to say that Jupiter’s magnetic field does not conform to a perfect toroidal sphere model, and then describe the differential, that would be more meaningful, especially if they could explain the forces “misshaping” the field. A leading indicator would be to observe how the earth’s local magnetic field is distorted by hurricanes and cyclones, and look for similarities.

  3. oldbrew says:

    JB – re ‘Just what do they mean by “Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is askew”?’

    The report says the probe learned that Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field is askew, with different patterns in its northern and southern hemispheres.

    Later it says: In total, Juno spotted eight cyclonic storms around the north pole and five around the south pole. Scientists were especially surprised to see these, since computer modelling suggests that such small storms would not be stable around the poles due to the planet’s swirling polar winds.

  4. stpaulchuck says:

    Do you think maybe it swallowed a planet or plantesimal and that didn’t get spread evenly inside?

  5. Sparks says:

    Old brew, what the [snip] are you going on about? “gravitational field = magnetic field ?”

    [reply] relax – I was asking what THEY are going on about 🙂

  6. oldbrew says:

    Jupiter has over 300 times the mass of Earth so it would take a lot to knock it out of its stride 😎
    – – –
    Jupiter’s X-ray auroras pulse independently
    October 30, 2017

    The study, published today in Nature Astronomy, found that very high-energy X-ray emissions at Jupiter’s south pole consistently pulse every 11 minutes. Meanwhile those at the north pole are erratic: increasing and decreasing in brightness, independent of the south pole.

    This behaviour is distinct from Earth’s north and south auroras which broadly mirror each other in activity. Other similarly large planets, such as Saturn, do not produce any detectable X-ray aurora, which makes the findings at Jupiter particularly puzzling.

    “We didn’t expect to see Jupiter’s X-ray hot spots pulsing independently as we thought their activity would be coordinated through the planet’s magnetic field. We need to study this further to develop ideas for how Jupiter produces its X-ray aurora and NASA’s Juno mission is really important for this”.

    Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2017-10-jupiter-x-ray-auroras-pulse-independently.html

  7. tallbloke says:

    5 and 8 cyclonic storms around th poles eh?
    Hmm. 5 and 8.

  8. ivan says:

    oldbrew since computer modelling suggests now we see how observation trumps computer models.

    I assume these scientists are going to rely on the observations rather than the models unlike the climate ‘scientists’.

    [reply] GIGO

  9. oldbrew says:

    This isn’t exactly scientific but the two visible halves of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere are not identical.

    Compare the two polar regions…or the temperate belts. And the Great Red Spot of course.

  10. oldbrew says:

    Over at Saturn…

    “We observe that the intensity drop in the proton radiation belts of Saturn coincides exactly with strong changes in the EUV radiation from the Sun”
    . . .
    “Our analyses also remind us how strongly the properties of the radiation belts depend on the structure of the particular planet system, that is, the position and number of moons for the case of Saturn”

    Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2017-10-saturn-belts-stranger-solar.html

  11. p.g.sharrow says:

    @oldbrew: … Wow! nice picture above. I just realized the cause of the gas giant bandings. thank you..pg

    [reply] we await developments 😎

  12. Paul Vaughan says:

    The list of burns keeps growing, underscoring a defenseless culture of endless false assumption.

    Theory’s a bad word tracking where the devil delays learning:

    “The planet is about 25 percent the radius its host star.
    […] Jupiter is […] about 10 percent the radius of our sun”

    A “monster” planet, which should in theory not exist, has been discovered orbiting a faint dwarf star […] astronomers said [..] “The discovery […] was a complete surprise to us” […]

    The existence of the gassy giant challenges long-standing theories […] “such massive planets were not thought to exist around such small stars” […]

    The enlightened 1/5 can help:
    1. skip the devilish injustice of theory and just observe.
    2. don’t devilishly destabilize with reckless fracture but rather stabilize with principled division.

    The remaining step to trivial generality is both simple and complex.

    (φ-i)(φ+i) = φ√5
    (φ-1)(φ+1) = φ

    -i & +i and -1 & +1 are perpendicular pairs of opposites on the complex unit circle.
    It’s just principled spin.

    complex difference of squares
    opposite perpendicular pairs
    just principles to order complex affairs:
    +1, +i, -1, -i

    You and your bro Euler can mastermind simply profound links to continuity from 1 discrete tip.
    Imagine Hilariously evasive products of irrationally adjusted spinning opposite powers :

    [φ+e^(πi/2)][φ+e^(πi+πi/2)] = φ√5
    [φ+e^(πi)][φ+e^(πi+πi)] = φ
    [Φ+e^(πi/2)][Φ+e^(πi+πi/2)] = Φ√5
    [Φ+e^(πi)][Φ+e^(πi+πi)] = -Φ

    If the algebra (& description) lost you, just have fun imagining tax reform as fine scaling with pentagonal roots.

    Western culture is predictably inclined towards basing theory on false assumptions.
    This major western fault is an easily exploited predictable vulnerability.

    Somehow this unreliable assumption took firm root in our culture, misleading us repeatedly even though the list of examples where it failed us never ends.

  13. Sunsettommy says:

    Over time, it is being exposed as a mini star,not a planet.

  14. Sparks says:


    This formula has never been published, or ever seen. I have it jotted down for an unrelated topic alongside the function that will give you a series of Ф.derived from π

    Please calculate this formula, and if you can reproduce the result post the 12th line of the sequence. (fn1 and fn2)

    Enjoy 🙂

  15. Sparks says:

    n is meant to be the symbol for PI in my last comment.

  16. Sparks says:

    Some other formulas make sense now lol

  17. Sparks says:


    This formula has never been published, or ever seen. I have it jotted down for an unrelated topic alongside the function that will give you a series of Ф.derived from PI

    Please calculate this formula, and if you can reproduce the result, post the 12th line of the sequence. (fn1 and fn2)

    Enjoy 🙂

  18. oldbrew says:

    (PI/4)² = 0.61685
    Ф = 0.618034

    (PI/6)*5 = 2.6179935
    φ² = 2.618034

    Re ‘PI/2=a’ – above can also be expressed as: PI/2 * 5/3

  19. oldbrew says:

    If you ignore the hocus-pocus in the video below, this is quite interesting: the Fibonacci clock. It uses the last digit of the first 60 Fibonacci numbers. It seems the next 60 end with the same digits, ad infinitum (i.e. every 60).
    ‘Opposite’ clock numbers always sum to 10 or 0. Note where the 5’s are: every 5th Fib. no. is a multiple of 5.

    An obvious question is: did the Babylonians with their base 60 numbering system know about this?
    There’s also a Lucas number connection – see video.

  20. oldbrew says:

    Experiment resolves mystery about wind flows on Jupiter
    January 23, 2017

    “This is the first time that anyone has demonstrated that strong jets that look like those on Jupiter can develop in a real fluid”

    Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2017-01-mystery-jupiter.html

  21. Sparks says:


    [A] is 3.141

    Divide [A] by 2 ( I clearly stated that above) doing so will give you [B] 1.570

    Add [A] plus [B] this will give you 4.711


    Continue this function

    For example: 3.141+4.711=7.825

    (Stated above was that you post the 12th line of this sequence, Please produce at least 30 lines for a cookie)


  22. Sparks says:

    Obviously Oldbrew has no comprehension of the subject he constantly goes on about, merely just firing out endless complex formulas that are literal. Which is unnatural in the mathematical context they are in.

    Producing a mathematical proof takes a lot of elbow grease, even in the computer age.
    After 3.141 days I have seen no proof of intelligent discourse.

    Even that horse from the early 1900’s was taught to recognize numerical symbols, that horse has provided more mathematical proof of its understanding than Oldbrew has.

  23. oldbrew says:

    Sorry Sparks, pardon my ignorance but saying Pi + 0.5 Pi = 1.5 Pi doesn’t look much like a mathematical proof.

    You say
    but a + b = 1.5 Pi.

    If there’s more feel free to enlighten us.

  24. Sparks says:

    For god sake Oldbrew just do the sequence lol honestly it will shed more light on the subject and we’ll continue from there.

    (BTW I don’t think you’re ignorant, relax)

  25. Sparks says:

    I’ll start you off, get your calculator out.


  26. Sparks says:

    This sequence came out of some research I’ve been doing on partial particle wave duality, the speed of light and frequencies. It is pointless if I start by throwing lots of equations and formulas at you when you have no context to go by, therefor I’m explaining a mathematical process from a primary principle,

    Does that make sense?

  27. Sparks says:

    Typo *particle wave duality

  28. oldbrew says:

    Not seeing the light so far 😐

  29. Sparks says:

    When you have a bit of spare time continue the sequence I showed you, you will have to do it around 30 times, have a bit of faith, you should notice something of interest to you and I will fill you in with the rest ok bud.

  30. Sparks says:

    It actually is on topic btw 😉

  31. Sparks says:

    You will need to add [20.415] and [32.978] to get the next number of the sequence and so forth

  32. Sparks says:

    Remember, you will be working with irrational numbers, you will need to terminate your integers at three places to the right of the decimal

  33. oldbrew says:

    1.570 = n (* 1)
    3.141 = n * 2
    4.711 = n * 3
    7.852 = n * 5
    12.563 = n * 8
    20.415 = n * 13
    32.978 = n * 21

    OK I can see where it’s going now – Fibonacci progression.
    But all you’re doing in effect is substituting 1.57~ for 1 as one unit (called ‘n’ here).

  34. oldbrew says:

    Venus and Jupiter conjunction: Sky-watchers await dawn display
    11 November 2017
    From the section UK

    Jupiter and Venus will be visible to the naked eye close together in the sky before dawn on Monday.

    The planets will appear in conjunction in the south-east, just above the horizon, and may appear to look like one bright star.

    In the UK, the best viewing time will be 40 minutes before sunrise.


    Early morning weather forecast for Monday: bright and cold

  35. Sparks says:

    Alright Oldbrew you kinda understand where I’m going with this, although you haven’t continued the sequence and produced the twelfth and eleventh line (from 1.570), I’ve continued it so you can see the results for yourself, I was expecting that it would stand out for you if you did 😉

    It is a natural sequence derived from PI itself that has a ratio of PHI and it has values relating to Venus and Earths orbits

    For example the ratio between the tenth and eleventh line (from PI) has a ratio of 1.618 I have actually compared it with the Fibonacci progression and the ratios are more accurate in this sequence.

    226.135 <—Venus?
    365.899 <—Earth?

  36. Sparks says:

    *Typo under [957.933] it should be



  37. oldbrew says:

    Venus orbit period is 0.6152~ years, close to 0.618 or 1/1.618.
    A year = 1 Earth orbit of course.

  38. Sparks says:

    The ratio between Venus and earth is [1.622] in earth days, the planetary orbital parameters are variable, the natural sequence above in relation to earth days is 1.618

  39. oldbrew says:

    13 Venus orbits = less than a day short of 8 Earth orbits (years).