The sun is quieter than normal, but don’t panic – says CBC News

Posted: March 11, 2019 by oldbrew in climate, Cycles, opinion, predictions, solar system dynamics
Tags: , , ,

Quiet sun [image credit: NASA]


In which we are informed that the Maunder Minimum was ‘an incident’, warming is due to ‘climate change’, and solar cycle 25 may not start until 2020.

Some fear that we could be heading to another Little Ice Age, but scientists say that’s unlikely, reports CBC News.

The sun is quiet … very quiet. In February, for the first time since August 2008, the sun went an entire month without any sunspots.

What does this mean for Earth?

In February, for the first time since August 2008, the sun went an entire month without any sunspots.

Sunspots are cooler regions of the sun. How many appear on the sun’s surface depends on what cycle the sun is in. Every 11 years our star goes through a maximum, followed by a minimum, also of 11 years (the entire cycle is 22 years).

Over the past three decades, the sun has been consistently dropping in activity. Maximum has been quieter than is typical; minimum has been particularly quiet. And this has caused some to make the false assumption that, as a result, Earth is going to cool.

It all stems from an incident that took place between 1645 and 1715, called the Maunder Minimum, where sunspots all but disappeared. This coincided with the “Little Ice Age” that stretched from 1500 to 1850 in the northern hemisphere. In England, the Thames River froze over; Viking settlers abandoned Greenland.

As a result, there have been strong suggestions that the Maunder Minimum caused the Little Ice Age, but some scientists warn that there were other contributors, such as increased volcanic activity.

On average, the sun produces 180 sunspots a cycle. The greatest ever was 285 in solar cycle 19; for solar cycle 24, so far it’s been 116.

So, with the decrease in solar activity, are we heading into another Maunder Minimum?

“No Maunder Minimum. Certainly no Little Ice Age,” said David Hathaway, an astrophysicist who once headed NASA’s solar physics branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center. “The next cycle looks like it’s going to be very much like this one.”

He explains that, while the sun does dim during a minimum, it’s only by a tenth of a per cent, which translates into a tenth of a degree Celsius. And with the warming by about 1C that we’ve seen due to climate change — and the warming that is to come — it’s unlikely that we’ll notice.

Different cycles

The sunspot cycle is also called the Schwabe cycle. At the moment we are at the end of cycle 24, heading toward 25. And scientists predict that this quiet trend is going to persist.

“There’s been this steady decline,” Hathaway said. “I’m fairly confident looking at our own predictions and predictions of others, that cycle 25 is going to be another small cycle.”

But it’s believed that the sun goes through many different cycles. Aside from the Schwabe, there is also one called the Gleissberg Cycle, where solar activity decreases roughly every 90 years.

And Hathaway said data over the past two centuries suggests that what the sun is now going through may be part of this cycle.

“We’ve now seen three or four of these modulations where we have small cycles, then they get bigger and then they get smaller again,” he said. “We’re at that bottom phase, where we haven’t seen cycles this small in 100 years.”

Full report here.
– – –

[Credit: Encyclopaedia Britannica]

Comments
  1. A C Osborn says:

    If it starts to get really cold over longer periods, then “Panic” is exactly the thing to do.
    A global degree or 2 of warming is as nothing compared to 2 degrees of cooling.
    Cold Kills far more than heat.
    The world is not doing any planning to prepare for it either.

  2. oldbrew says:

    Lake Superior at 94.2 percent ice coverage
    March 9, 2019

    https://www.iceagenow.info/lake-superior-at-94-2-percent-ice-coverage/

    Much more than the same day in the previous years.
    https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/glcfs/compare_years/

    Great Lakes total ice cover on March 10th:
    2019 – 71%, 2018 – 26.4%, 2017 – 6.4%
    – – –
    February is coldest in Los Angeles in nearly 60 years
    https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-cold-february-20190225-story.html

    No global warming signal there 😐

  3. JB says:

    “Scafetta (2012a ) found that the 11-year triplet generated beat periods at approximately 115, 61 and 130 years in addition to a milennial large beat cycle at approximately 983 years. This explained the Ort, Wolf, Maunder and Dalton minima and forecasted a new deep minimum during 2020–2045.” The influence of solar system oscillation on the variability of the total solar irradiance
    Harald Yndestad a , ∗, Jan-Erik Solheim New Astronomy 51 (2017)

    Long Term Sunspot Cycle Phase Coherence with Periodic Phase Disruptions; Pease & Glenn

  4. oldbrew says:

    Enc. Britannica says:
    The Maunder minimum coincided with the coldest part of the “Little Ice Age” (c. 1500–1850) in the Northern Hemisphere, when the Thames River in England froze over during winter, Viking settlers abandoned Greenland, and Norwegian farmers demanded that the Danish king recompense them for lands occupied by advancing glaciers.

    https://www.britannica.com/science/Maunder-minimum

    Not bad for an ‘incident’ 😎

    It goes on to say:
    The physical mechanism that explains how a drastic change in solar activity affects Earth’s climate is unknown, and a single episode, however suggestive, does not prove that lower sunspot numbers produce cooling.

    IOW: correlation does not necessarily equal causation – unless it’s a few molecules of the trace gas CO2? Perhaps the modern warming incident is on its last legs, for a while at least.

  5. tom0mason says:

    “He explains that, while the sun does dim during a minimum, it’s only by a tenth of a per cent, which translates into a tenth of a degree Celsius. And with the warming by about 1C that we’ve seen due to climate change — and the warming that is to come — it’s unlikely that we’ll notice.”

    That assumes all that is measured from the sun is all that affects our global temperatures.
    Or is it like the sunspots — just an indirect method of seeing only part of the the sun’s activity and equating that to the total effect it has on our world.

    Horatio: O day and night, but this is wondrous strange!
    Hamlet: And therefore as a stranger give it welcome. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.

  6. Stephen Richards says:

    Hathaway forecasted a violent cycle 24 if I remember correctly

  7. oldbrew says:

    Stephen R: looks like it, see this commentary from 2010.

    http://climaterealists.com/index.php?id=6418

  8. Richard111 says:

    Strange all the different stories one reads. I read that a quiet sun results from the sun’s magnetic field quietening down. This allows the earth’s magnetic field to relax allowing more ‘cosmic rays’ to impact the upper atmosphere. These ‘rays’ are actually broken atoms, protons, neutrons and other bits and pieces travelling at nearly the speed of light. This tends to split atmospheric atoms forming cloud condensation nuclei and 14CO2. The extra cloud formed during this period is more effective at cooling the earth than the quiet sun. The 14CO2 is an excellent time scale provider for long dead creatures.
    Make note of cloud cover when you see satellite pictures on TV during weather reports. I understand all ‘climate model computer programs’ are fixed to calculate with just 30% cloud cover. I think the TV satellite pictures show something in the order of 50% or more cloud during this quiet sun period.

  9. williamcg says:

    GWPF has just released a new report by Henrik Svensmark that does a very good job of explaining the relationship between lower sunspots, increased Galactic Cosmic Rays and cloud cover. You can find the report here.

  10. williamcg says:

    It appears that my link to the Svensmark report does not work on this site. the link is:

    https://www.thegwpf.org/content/uploads/2019/03/SvensmarkSolar2019.pdf

  11. jarlgeir says:

    Enc. Britannica says:
    “The Maunder minimum coincided with the coldest part of the “Little Ice Age” (c. 1500–1850) in the Northern Hemisphere, when the Thames River in England froze over during winter, Viking settlers abandoned Greenland, and Norwegian farmers demanded that the Danish king recompense them for lands occupied by advancing glaciers.”

    The problem with that is that the latest contact with the Viking settlers in Greenland was in 1408 when a marriage took place.

  12. oldbrew says:

    the latest contact with the Viking settlers in Greenland was in 1408

    Maybe the Vikings were scared off by a lack of CO2 in the atmosphere 😆

  13. oldbrew says:

    a new report by Henrik Svensmark that does a very good job of explaining the relationship between lower sunspots, increased Galactic Cosmic Rays and cloud cover.

    But it’s hard to find any climate signals corresponding to one solar cycle :/

  14. williamcg says:

    “But it’s hard to find any climate signals corresponding to one solar cycle.”

    % Cloud Cover seems to work on short time scales. See Figures 10 and 14 in the Svensmark report and the discussion on page 19. (But there seems to be some calibration issues with satellite cloud cover measurements and the data are hard to refine).

  15. stpaulchuck says:

    there was a recent article somewhere noting the increase in cosmic rays actually measured along with solar energy hitting the Earth’s magnetosphere since the sun quieted (actual data). Combine that with the papers on cosmic ray stimulation of cloud cover and I think tomOmason and the rest of you have hit it on the head.

    The ratio over time of solar insolation versus cosmic ray stimulated cloud cover needs to be looked at and perhaps determined. It could be non linear, but what the heck, it’s GREAT info and certainly appears way more scientific than banning my backyard barbecue.

  16. Jim says:

    Agreed with all said, but, sunspots release great gobs of energy, plasma, in greater densities then normal sunshine. Like a wave, it overwhelms our planet, creating more then normal warmth. Instead of the boiling action of sunspots, it’s a normal where we are heading. Earth is on the outside of the Goldilocks zone, we should be cold, that’s normal. It’s just been a lucky streak we have been on, lots of extra warmth. It may be time to get out the mucklucks again.

  17. Paul Vaughan says:

    IT’s time for review:
    2020 GIANT Placeholder Transit

    harmonic of 238.936515728175 nearest 22.1392998455063 is 238.936515728175 / 11 = 21.7215014298341
    (21.7215014298341)*(22.1392998455063) / (21.7215014298341 – 22.1392998455063) = 1151.03077276139

    (18.3797319790904)*(18.0144934436908) / (18.3797319790904 – 18.0144934436908) = 906.535124701122

    (1151.03077276139)*(906.535124701122) / (1151.03077276139 – 906.535124701122) = 4267.76440970793

    (1151.03077276139)*(906.535124701122) / (1151.03077276139 + 906.535124701122) = 507.128265688553

    (1151.03077276139)*(507.128265688553) / (1151.03077276139 – 507.128265688553) = 906.535124701122

    (1151.03077276139)*(507.128265688553) / (1151.03077276139 + 507.128265688553) = 352.029103366528

    (352.029103366528)*(507.128265688553) / (352.029103366528 – 507.128265688553) = 1151.03077276139

    (352.029103366528)*(507.128265688553) / (352.029103366528 + 507.128265688553) = 207.789533201011

    (207.789533201011)*(507.128265688553) / (207.789533201011 – 507.128265688553) = 352.029103366528

    (207.789533201011)*(507.128265688553) / (207.789533201011 + 507.128265688553) = 147.395890498371

    (103.894766600505)*(507.128265688553) / (103.894766600505 – 507.128265688553) = 130.663679777078

    (103.894766600505)*(507.128265688553) / (103.894766600505 + 507.128265688553) = 86.2291108779448

    (2302.06154552277)*(1495.42109637124) / (2302.06154552277 – 1495.42109637124) = 4267.76440970793

    (2302.06154552277)*(1495.42109637124) / (2302.06154552277 + 1495.42109637124) = 906.535124701122

    Suggestion 329:
    IT’s not Just Sunshine Eclipsing 20/20 View.
    Eur. just 1 click uawei from a missing link… (tube E contineud…)

  18. oldbrew says:

    Sunspots are significant, but other factors variables shouldn’t be ignored: EUV, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar wind changes etc.

    Auroras offer clues perhaps, but are generally more active around the equinoxes.

  19. Richard111 says:

    williamcg: thank you for the Svensmark pdf. Excellent report to have on hand.

  20. oldbrew says:

    Today’s climate scare, or one of them…

    Australian climate tool identifies end of winter by 2050
    March 11, 2019, Australian National University

    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-australian-climate-tool-winter.html

  21. johnm33 says:

    One other factor may be changes in the phi field that governs orbits.

  22. thegoosefish says:

    Adirondack ice fishing conditions are the best in 10 years. coincidental? totally anecdotal evidence, though: “Vehicles were still driving on Great Sacandaga Lake’s ice, said Desiree from Fuel-n-Food in nearby Mayfield. But shanties will be required to be removed soon, she thought. Lou from the shop drove his pickup onto the lake, he wrote Friday on his blog. He measured 23 inches of ice in a fishing hole. There was enough snow on the ice for good snowmobiling, but not too much to hinder driving the pickup. Ice-fishing conditions were the best in 10 years.”

  23. oldbrew says:

    Richard111 says: I understand all ‘climate model computer programs’ are fixed to calculate with just 30% cloud cover.

    That could be the land figure, but Earth is > 70% ocean.

    Two-Thirds (67%) of earth’s surface is covered by clouds. Over the oceans, it was estimated that less than 10% of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time, rising to 30% over land.

    https://www.vividmaps.com/2019/01/the-average-cloud-cover-across-the-world-in-2018.html

  24. Paul Vaughan says:

    A fun way to advance exploratory insight is with a series of models that inspire open minds and usefully identify large pools of steadfastly closed minds incapable of transiting saddle points to more optimal peaks and valleys in a multimodal landscape with no trusted guide (very difficult to train AI about intuition, trust, and extremely rare tactical lies).

    This was a rough introductory sketch omitting 2nd order geometry:

    https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2019/03/05/scientists-track-deep-history-of-planets-motions-and-effects-on-earths-climate/#comment-147632

    The hypothetical Venus transit cycle with Venus frequency φ (18.01740317a) on the observed Jovian background gives the 100ka Milankovitch cycle.

    The stablest resonance is the one nearest antiresonance. The observed offset isn’t mysterious.

    The observed offset defines the Milankovitch cycles, including the high-frequency Milankovitch cycles of materially qualitative (“internal”) celestial geometry.

    If not to the sun just look at the shape-shifting ground (or star) underfoot. The roots of coincidence branch from the same Farey Tree.

    =
    silent hell on the marble slab
    hire than a jet playin’ with U
    eye don’t wanna C U know more
    will we arrive in the middle of know-ware?
    higher than a jet plane pass IT around
    auto pilot know control
    =
    Q

  25. Paul Vaughan says:

    Scene Just in Truly Snaky LA Villains
    C ying ☼ CN dot CA ● yang

    IT’s just another F’UN deaf’lection.
    Pass the puck buy passing the pipe.

    CN R’s CweNova stone age is rated R:
    “Restricted to everyone, everywhere, all the time”

    “Never mind” pipes where pux will suffice.
    √(Φ-φ)(φ+Φ)² czar know-wear! “We R all CNux!”

    We R on 1 slippery slope …and we A l l no IT.

    1.
    UN
    Trade
    Tie.Won
    Decade.dance
    4.Venus.Hale.Love
    =
    √(Φ-φ) C my red door
    √(Φ-φ) must have IT painted black
    IT’s not EC face CN up when Eur. hole world is black
    √(Φ-φ) could knot 4 C this thing happenning to U
    Eye C a red door and aiwan IT painted black
    Eye C people turn their heads and quickly look uawei
    Know more will face the facts before the mourning comes
    √(Φ-φ) see a line of cars and they‘R all painted black
    Black as night, black as coal
    √(Φ-φ) have to turn my head until My darkness goes
    √(Φ-φ) wanna sea the sun: blot IT out from the sky
    √(Φ-φ) φΦ φΦ+Φφ C IT painted pain IT pain IT painted black
    If φ look hard enough in 2 the 2nd sun…
    =
    Rolling Stones

    harmonic of 238.936515728175 nearest 18.0144934436908 is 238.936515728175 / 13 = 18.3797319790904

    IT AIn’t just jovian evection resonance…

  26. Paul Vaughan says:

    IT’s not Just another May First in BRI10.

    Comparatively C yin 20/20 hindsight of try yin the 1st order NASA J2000 3000BC-3000AD model:
    https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2013/07/28/cameron-and-schussler-no-evidence-for-planetary-influence-on-solar-activity/#comment-56362

    Yin this light Seidelmann (1992) revealed long-run 2nd order (big league) models incorporating Milankovitch.

    The Lost Art of Keeping (& Peking!) a Secret — Q

  27. nickreality65 says:

    By reflecting away 30% of the incoming solar energy the atmosphere/albedo make the earth cooler than it would be without the atmosphere.
    https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6503085690262216704

    Greenhouse theory has it wrong.

    The non-radiative processes of a contiguous participating media, i.e. atmospheric molecules, render ideal black body LWIR from the surface impossible. The 396 W/m^2 upwelling from the surface is a “what if” calculation without physical reality. (TFK_bams09)
    https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6507990128915464192

    Greenhouse theory has it wrong.

    Without the 396 W/m^2 upwelling there is no 333 W/m^2 GHG energy loop to “warm” the earth.
    https://www.linkedin.com/feed/update/urn:li:activity:6457980707988922368

    Greenhouse theory has it wrong.

    These three points are what matter, all the rest is irrelevant noise.

  28. oldbrew says:

    ‘On this forecasted Infrared Satellite imagery product, check out not just one, but two distinct Fibonacci spirals! Fibonacci spirals are commonly found in meteorology, and their representation on satellite imagery depict that the cyclone is both mature and powerful.’

    https://mobile.twitter.com/weatherbell/status/1105833464090251264

  29. Paul Vaughan says:

    Couple Fine Ally Realigned 4 Giant Transit

    Review: The J2000 model hit the same framework ignoring slip on the EV frame, suggesting there was a quiet institutional paradigm shift recognizing the role of Jovian evection resonance in Milankovitch cycles.

    Derivations tightened up with Seidelmann (1992) :

    22.1384769776823 = φφ/(J+S)

    JEV

    (11.8626151546089)*(1.00001743371442) / (11.8626151546089 – 1.00001743371442) = 1.0920796543202
    (11.8626151546089)*(0.615197263396975) / (11.8626151546089 – 0.615197263396975) = 0.648846557532906
    (1.0920796543202)*(0.648846557532906) / (1.0920796543202 – 0.648846557532906) = 1.59868955949705
    (1.0920796543202)*(0.648846557532906) / (1.0920796543202 + 0.648846557532906) = 0.407020193867456
    harmonic of 1.59868955949705 nearest 0.407020193867456 is 1.59868955949705 / 4 = 0.399672389874261
    (0.399672389874261)*(0.407020193867456) / (0.399672389874261 – 0.407020193867456) = 22.1392314983839

    SEV

    (29.4474984673838)*(1.00001743371442) / (29.4474984673838 – 1.00001743371442) = 1.0351711566943
    (29.4474984673838)*(0.615197263396975) / (29.4474984673838 – 0.615197263396975) = 0.628323779737571
    (1.0351711566943)*(0.628323779737571) / (1.0351711566943 – 0.628323779737571) = 1.59868955949704
    (1.0351711566943)*(0.628323779737571) / (1.0351711566943 + 0.628323779737571) = 0.390997675799726
    harmonic of 1.59868955949704 nearest 0.390997675799726 is 1.59868955949704 / 4 = 0.399672389874261
    (0.399672389874261)*(0.390997675799726) / (0.399672389874261 – 0.390997675799726) = 18.0145390590913

    Venus Transit

    (1.00001743371442)*(0.615197263396975) / (1.00001743371442 – 0.615197263396975) = 1.59868955949705
    harmonic of 1.59868955949705 nearest 1.00001743371442 is 1.59868955949705 / 2 = 0.799344779748523
    (0.799344779748523)*(1.00001743371442) / (0.799344779748523 – 1.00001743371442) = 3.98339633975724
    harmonic of 3.98339633975724 nearest 1.00001743371442 is 3.98339633975724 / 4 = 0.995849084939309
    (0.995849084939309)*(1.00001743371442) / (0.995849084939309 – 1.00001743371442) = 238.911497097718

    Slip

    harmonic of 238.911497097718 nearest 22.1392314983839 is 238.911497097718 / 11 = 21.7192270088835
    (21.7192270088835)*(22.1392314983839) / (21.7192270088835 – 22.1392314983839) = 1144.86155918859

    harmonic of 238.911497097718 nearest 18.0145390590913 is 238.911497097718 / 13 = 18.3778074690553
    (18.3778074690553)*(18.0145390590913) / (18.3778074690553 – 18.0145390590913) = 911.358437428146

    Slip Frame

    (1144.86155918859)*(911.358437428146) / (1144.86155918859 – 911.358437428146) = 4468.37384351583
    (1144.86155918859)*(911.358437428146) / (1144.86155918859 + 911.358437428146) = 507.425880192985
    (1144.86155918859)*(507.425880192985) / (1144.86155918859 + 507.425880192985) = 351.592810381599
    (351.592810381599)*(507.425880192985) / (351.592810381599 + 507.425880192985) = 207.687321864993
    (207.687321864993)*(507.425880192985) / (207.687321864993 + 507.425880192985) = 147.369565823962
    (103.843660932496)*(507.425880192985) / (103.843660932496 + 507.425880192985) = 86.2024974352796
    (2289.72311837718)*(1513.93786575447) / (2289.72311837718 – 1513.93786575447) = 4468.37384351582
    (2289.72311837718)*(1513.93786575447) / (2289.72311837718 + 1513.93786575447) = 911.358437428146

    Explore by compare-and-contrast: Swap J2000 for Seidelmann (1992) and repeat the 2013 & 2019 derivations. You’ll discover a well-parameterized paradigm shift surrounded by a fine stand of Farey Trees that may look like a well-greened sunspot record if your eye’s above the circular stonewall for enlightened spin. C yin today’s natural hazards in yesterday’s well-ignored slip, peace by piece may first be φ-viable.

    =
    1st IT steels Eur. mind
    then IT steals yore Seoul
    =
    SuperUNknown Washington’s Soundgarden

    The positively imaginary square route of negative one Cs IT’s rights left BRI10.

    “etc.”
    “pain points”
    “illegal information”
    “public opinion control”
    “guidance of public opinion”
    “guide people to correctly view”
    “mass online public opinion outbreaks”
    positive thinking in public opinion propaganda”
    they are still immature and may cause security incidents

    The sharpest tiger moms simply accupuncture red tape with necessary invention.

    “Split second decisions are needed, and the complexity creates danger. All of this for great cost yet very little gain. I don’t know about you, but I don’t want Albert Einstein to be my pilot. I want great flying professionals that are allowed to easily and quickly take control of a plane!” — DT

    IT’s not A l l just a game of speed chess for whole-E EUCRUS security hacks!

    1 naturally liberating accupuncture
    22.139216638166 = φ(φφ)^e
    1 UNfit to Nuke Knock

    1 steps back
    2 step forward

    Climate agreements first may spin left on a bright dime: May stability be first — peace by piece — as BRI10 fine ally transits the realigning giants.

  30. Paul Vaughan says:

    Review: The J2000 model hit the same framework ignoring slip on the EV frame, suggesting there was a quiet institutional paradigm shift recognizing the role of Jovian evection resonance in Milankovitch cycles.

    Derivations tightened up with Seidelmann (1992) :

    22.1384769776823 = φφ/(J+S)

    JEV

    (11.8626151546089)*(1.00001743371442) / (11.8626151546089 – 1.00001743371442) = 1.0920796543202
    (11.8626151546089)*(0.615197263396975) / (11.8626151546089 – 0.615197263396975) = 0.648846557532906
    (1.0920796543202)*(0.648846557532906) / (1.0920796543202 – 0.648846557532906) = 1.59868955949705
    (1.0920796543202)*(0.648846557532906) / (1.0920796543202 + 0.648846557532906) = 0.407020193867456
    harmonic of 1.59868955949705 nearest 0.407020193867456 is 1.59868955949705 / 4 = 0.399672389874261
    (0.399672389874261)*(0.407020193867456) / (0.399672389874261 – 0.407020193867456) = 22.1392314983839

    SEV

    (29.4474984673838)*(1.00001743371442) / (29.4474984673838 – 1.00001743371442) = 1.0351711566943
    (29.4474984673838)*(0.615197263396975) / (29.4474984673838 – 0.615197263396975) = 0.628323779737571
    (1.0351711566943)*(0.628323779737571) / (1.0351711566943 – 0.628323779737571) = 1.59868955949704
    (1.0351711566943)*(0.628323779737571) / (1.0351711566943 + 0.628323779737571) = 0.390997675799726
    harmonic of 1.59868955949704 nearest 0.390997675799726 is 1.59868955949704 / 4 = 0.399672389874261
    (0.399672389874261)*(0.390997675799726) / (0.399672389874261 – 0.390997675799726) = 18.0145390590913

    Venus Transit

    (1.00001743371442)*(0.615197263396975) / (1.00001743371442 – 0.615197263396975) = 1.59868955949705
    harmonic of 1.59868955949705 nearest 1.00001743371442 is 1.59868955949705 / 2 = 0.799344779748523
    (0.799344779748523)*(1.00001743371442) / (0.799344779748523 – 1.00001743371442) = 3.98339633975724
    harmonic of 3.98339633975724 nearest 1.00001743371442 is 3.98339633975724 / 4 = 0.995849084939309
    (0.995849084939309)*(1.00001743371442) / (0.995849084939309 – 1.00001743371442) = 238.911497097718

    Slip

    harmonic of 238.911497097718 nearest 22.1392314983839 is 238.911497097718 / 11 = 21.7192270088835
    (21.7192270088835)*(22.1392314983839) / (21.7192270088835 – 22.1392314983839) = 1144.86155918859

    harmonic of 238.911497097718 nearest 18.0145390590913 is 238.911497097718 / 13 = 18.3778074690553
    (18.3778074690553)*(18.0145390590913) / (18.3778074690553 – 18.0145390590913) = 911.358437428146

    Slip Frame

    (1144.86155918859)*(911.358437428146) / (1144.86155918859 – 911.358437428146) = 4468.37384351583
    (1144.86155918859)*(911.358437428146) / (1144.86155918859 + 911.358437428146) = 507.425880192985
    (1144.86155918859)*(507.425880192985) / (1144.86155918859 + 507.425880192985) = 351.592810381599
    (351.592810381599)*(507.425880192985) / (351.592810381599 + 507.425880192985) = 207.687321864993
    (207.687321864993)*(507.425880192985) / (207.687321864993 + 507.425880192985) = 147.369565823962
    (103.843660932496)*(507.425880192985) / (103.843660932496 + 507.425880192985) = 86.2024974352796
    (2289.72311837718)*(1513.93786575447) / (2289.72311837718 – 1513.93786575447) = 4468.37384351582
    (2289.72311837718)*(1513.93786575447) / (2289.72311837718 + 1513.93786575447) = 911.358437428146

  31. Paul Vaughan says:

    lost: number flood

  32. Paul Vaughan says:

    dearest of A l l jovial election resonance moderators: retrieve the lost number floods! quickly!!

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