Suggestions-44

Please post ideas for new threads, tips on relevant and interesting threads elsewhere, and notes about pretty much anything you like here.

The scissors will be wielded to commercial spam, lewd suggestions, and anything else I don’t like. 😎

Comments
  1. oldbrew says:

    Link back to Suggestions 43

    [for viewing only please]

    = = =

  2. oldbrew says:

    Discussing ‘The Great Salinity Anomaly’…

    As reported by e360.yale.edu: Today, the Beaufort Gyre now holds as much freshwater as all of the Great Lakes combined, and its continuing clockwise swirl is preventing this enormous volume of ice and cold-freshwater from flushing into the North Atlantic Ocean. Scientists say the gyre will inevitably weaken and reverse direction, and when it does it could expel a massive amount of icy fresh water into the North Atlantic.

    https://electroverse.net/the-arctics-ticking-climate-bomb-little-ice-age-imminent/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Salinity_Anomaly

    Summary at 4 mins…

  3. oldbrew says:

    SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

    Housing prices decline within mile of solar energy arrays
    by Todd McLeish, University of Rhode Island

    A study of the impact of utility scale solar power installations on nearby housing prices by University of Rhode Island economists found that house prices within a mile of a Rhode Island or Massachusetts solar array declined by an average of 1.7%. Homes within a tenth of a mile of the installations declined by 7%.

    https://techxplore.com/news/2020-09-housing-prices-decline-mile-solar.html

  4. oldbrew says:

    Be careful what you wish for 😆

    Cambridge academics face flying restrictions as university goes carbon neutral
    October 01 2020

    https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/cambridge-academics-face-flying-restrictions-as-university-goes-carbon-neutral-nwvfxsr6d
    – – –
    Carbophobia strikes back

  5. oldbrew says:

    Problems in climate science from the viewpoint of an historical geologist.
    Dr Howard Thomas Brady
    ACDE Seminar -October 6th, 2020

    Abstract
    The climate system is vast with the interaction of forces we do not fully understand. Linking recent and future global warming to increasing carbon dioxide levels is problematic. Historical data exposes serious flaws in the IPCC reports with respect to, for example: the predictions of future sea levels; the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and temperature; the frequency and severity of storms. Applying the word ‘unprecedented’ to certain events shows an ignorance of the Earth’s geological and environmental history. Climate change cannot be assumed to be geocentric without influence from cosmic and solar weather. Climate models are on steroids with respect to their estimate of what is called the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity Index; that is, the estimate of future temperatures if carbon dioxide levels double. We cannot forget this statement:- ‘we are dealing with a coupled chaotic nonlinear system and therefore the prediction of future climate states is not possible..’ IPCC Report 2001 (14.2.2.2).

    Link to paper

    H/T Jo Nova
    Banned by ANU! So join Geologist Howard Brady on Zoom Tuesday 2pm*
    http://joannenova.com.au/2020/10/banned-by-anu-so-join-geologist-howard-bradys-on-zoom-instead-tuesday-2pm/

    (*Local time in Oz)

  6. oldbrew says:

    Galactic beat frequencies detected?

    OCTOBER 6, 2020 REPORT
    Quasi-periodic oscillation detected in the galaxy NGC 4945

    As noted by in the study, the light curve from RXTE observations in the 2–10 keV band shows a prominent LFQPO with a period of approximately six weeks. The newly detected oscillations are also seen near this period in other three sub-bands.

    The astronomers noted that possible explanations for the observed QPO in NGC 4945, as well as in other active galaxies, include Keplerian orbital motion of matter in the disk, spin of the central compact object, general relativistic effects, or beat frequencies between two of the previous mechanisms. They added that the available data does not allow to choose the most plausible hypothesis. [bold added]

    https://phys.org/news/2020-10-quasi-periodic-oscillation-galaxy-ngc.html

  7. Paul Vaughan says:

    Left Fields High Bat.in Fenway Spark

    Te[a]ch no. CR at IC “a11y” curry US what IT‘s cal.led:

    West stern “governance” CANCELLED my Bei=lief.in west turn govern ants.

    Sci11UNs! Psy(go vert non C[ENSO]Rshh)ops.

  8. oldbrew says:

    OCTOBER 9, 2020

    Climate patterns linked in Amazon, North and South America, study shows
    by Bob Whitby, University of Arkansas

    Tree growth is a well-established climate proxy. By comparing growth rings in Cedrela odorata trees found in the Rio Paru watershed of the eastern Amazon River with hundreds of similar chronologies in North and South America, scientists have shown an inverse relationship in tree growth, and therefore precipitation patterns, between the areas. Drought in the Amazon is correlated with wetness in the southwestern United States, Mexico and Patagonia, and vice versa.

    The process is driven by the El Niño phenomenon, which influences surface-level winds along the equator, researchers said.

    https://phys.org/news/2020-10-climate-patterns-linked-amazon-north.html
    [inc. short video]

  9. oldbrew says:

    Cosmic ray neutron count has been mostly positive (above the zero % line) since 2005.

  10. oldbrew says:

    11th October
    COP26: Theresa May asked to take helm of Glasgow’s 2021 climate summit

    BORIS Johnson has asked Theresa May to take charge of the COP26 climate summit planned for Glasgow in 2021.

    May has not turned down the post, according to The Sunday Times, but she has been put off by the prospect of having to work closely with Dominic Cummings.

    The former prime minister has reportedly discussed climate change with Johnson because she had introduced the target for the UK to be “net zero” in carbon emissions by 2050.

    https://www.thenational.scot/news/18786397.cop26-theresa-may-asked-take-helm-glasgows-2021-climate-summit/

  11. oldbrew says:

    UN Disasters Report Is A Huge Blunder And Embarrassment
    GWPF, Date: 12/10/20

    ‘A new United Nations report on The Human Cost of Disasters has been described as “an embarrassment” and “a catalogue of errors” after it emerged its headline claim of a “staggering rise in climate-related disasters” was refuted by its own data.’

    https://www.thegwpf.com/un-disasters-report-is-a-huge-blunder-and-embarrassment/
    – – –
    Disastrous.

  12. oldbrew says:

    Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming

    Striking when hot, and more when hotter

    Lightning occurs more frequently when it is hotter than when it is colder, but how much more lightning should we expect as global temperatures increase? Currently there are around 25 million lightning strikes per year. Romps et al. constructed a proxy based on the energy available to make air rise in the atmosphere and on precipitation rates to model the frequency of lightning strikes across the continental United States. They predict that the number of lightning strikes will increase by about 12% for every degree of rise in global average air temperature.

    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6211/851
    – – –
    OCTOBER 15, 2020

    We are starting to crack the mystery of how lightning and thunderstorms work

    We don’t understand lightning well. If, for example, you were to film a lightning strike and play it back in super slow motion, you’d notice that the strike proceeds in steps. It pauses for a while at intervals before moving on, says Dr. Alejandro Luque at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucía in Granada, Spain. But we don’t know why this happens. He says there are a few papers on this but essentially no accepted theories.

    https://phys.org/news/2020-10-mystery-lightning-thunderstorms.html
    – – –
    Locating a target on the ground?

  13. oldbrew says:

    8 October 2020
    ENSO Alert System Status: La Niña Advisory

    Synopsis: La Niña is likely to continue through the Northern Hemisphere winter 2020-21 (~85% chance) and into spring 2021 (~60% chance during February-April).

    https://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/ensodisc.shtml

  14. oldbrew says:

    SEPTEMBER 29, 2020
    Second alignment plane of solar system discovered
    — National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    Arika Higuchi, an assistant professor at the University of Occupational and Environmental Health in Japan and previously a member of the NAOJ RISE Project, studied the effects of the galactic gravity on long-period comets through analytical investigation of the equations governing orbital motion.

    She showed that when the galactic gravity is taken into account, the aphelia of long-period comets tend to collect around two planes. First the well-known ecliptic, but also a second “empty ecliptic.” The ecliptic is inclined with respect to the disk of the Milky Way by about 60 degrees. The empty ecliptic is also inclined by 60 degrees, but in the opposite direction. Higuchi calls this the “empty ecliptic” based on mathematical nomenclature and because initially it contains no objects, only later being populated with scattered comets. [bold added]

    https://phys.org/news/2020-09-alignment-plane-solar.html
    – – –
    *when the galactic gravity is taken into account*

    Also: However, Higuchi cautions, “The sharp peaks are not exactly at the ecliptic or empty ecliptic planes, but near them.”

    ‘Not exactly at…but near’ — what about the Lagrange points?

    Jupiter trojans:
    The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or simply Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter’s orbit around the Sun. Relative to Jupiter, each Trojan librates around one of Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points: either L4, lying 60° ahead of the planet in its orbit, or L5, 60° behind. Jupiter trojans are distributed in two elongated, curved regions around these Lagrangian points [bold added]

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter_trojan


    (L3-L4-L5 triangle is also equilateral, in the diagram at least)
    = = =
    As seen from the Sun, the L4 and L5 points lie at 60 degrees ahead of and behind Earth, close to its orbit.
    http://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Operations/What_are_Lagrange_points

  15. oldbrew says:

    Too big to jail…

    UK regulators fine Goldman Sachs over Malaysian fraud after £2.2bn enforcement
    By Press Association 2020

    The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) fined Goldman Sachs International (GSI) £96.6 million.

    It was part of a larger co-ordinated resolution with Goldman Sachs Group over the 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB), which will cost the bank 2.9 billion US dollars (£2.2 billion).
    . . .
    In July, Malaysia’s government said it had reached a 3.9 billion US dollars (£3 billion) settlement with Goldman Sachs in exchange for dropping criminal charges against the bank over bond sales that raised money for the fund.

    In court on Thursday, Goldman Sachs’ general counsel, Karen Seymour, said that agents and employees of Goldman Sachs Malaysia had violated the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act by “corruptly promising and paying bribes to foreign officials in order to obtain and retain business for Goldman Sachs”. [bold added]

    https://www.glasgowtimes.co.uk/news/viralnews/18815866.uk-regulators-fine-goldman-sachs-malaysian-fraud-2-2bn-enforcement/
    – – –
    Mark Carney – GS
    Rishi Sunak – GS
    etc. etc.

    26 Goldman Sachs Alumni Who Run the World (GS)
    Updated Jun 25, 2019

    “The first thing you need to know about Goldman Sachs,” Rolling Stone’s Matt Taibbi wrote in July 2009, “is that it’s everywhere.” Whether that makes the bank a “vampire squid,” in Taibbi’s now-famous phrasing, is debatable, but Goldman Sachs Group Inc.’s (GS) ubiquity is hard to deny. [bold added]

    https://www.investopedia.com/news/26-goldman-sachs-alumni-who-run-world-gs/

  16. oldbrew says:

    A closer look at Kepler’s third law
    Posted: March 25, 2016

    So: volume variation / (circumference x area) variation = a constant (because r³ = r² x r).
    https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2016/03/25/a-closer-look-at-keplers-third-law/

    Added a link to a paper by Miles Mathis on the third law which points to a similar conclusion:

    Mathis: But to really understand the Third Law simply and intuitively, I find it best to ditch all that entirely and start over from scratch. We then get the cube straight from the volume equation.

  17. oldbrew says:

    JUNO DISCOVERS SPRITES AND ELVES ON JUPITER
    — OCTOBER 28, 2020

    NASA’s Juno spacecraft has detected brief, powerful flashes of ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. They are believed to be the Jovian counterparts of sprites and elves on Earth — electric phenomena in the atmosphere that can sometimes be seen high above powerful lightning discharges.

    https://skyandtelescope.org/astronomy-news/juno-discovers-sprites-and-elves-on-jupiter/

  18. oldbrew says:

    Coronavirus: PM considering England lockdown next week
    Published 4 minutes ago

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-54756950

  19. oldbrew says:

    NASA: Halloween Blue Moon

    For the first time since 2001, the Moon will be full on Halloween (October 31). And because this is the second Full Moon in October, it’s also considered a Blue Moon. (It won’t literally be blue, though.)

    On average, the Moon is full on Halloween every 19 years, a period known as the Metonic cycle, used for centuries to construct luni-solar calendars and to calculate the date of Easter. Between 1900 and 2100, the Moon is full on Halloween (in at least one time zone) in the following years:

    1906, 1925, 1944, 1955, 1974, 1993,
    2001, 2020, 2039, 2058, 2077, 2096

    Furthermore, these are all Blue Moons. In fact, every Halloween Full Moon is also a Blue Moon. [bold added]

    https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4864
    – – –
    Interestingly, NASA says ‘Between 1900 and 2100’ and quotes 12 years in that period. As the Metonic cycle ‘slips’ by just over 2 hours every 19 years, it takes 12 of them to shift it by (more than) a whole day. However, it would take 12*19 = 228 years to do that, and 1906-2096 is only 190 years (10 Metonic). The discrepancy is partly due to 1955 following 1944, and 2001 following 1993, in the list (1955-1944 = 11, 2001-1993 = 8, 11+8 = 19). The other ‘missing’ 19 years is due to 1906 being at the end of a Metonic cycle, not the start.

    https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2020/04/03/the-metonic-cycle-error-or-not/

  20. oldbrew says:

    Two circumbinary brown dwarfs at V470 Cam

    Twenty new eclipse times for the post-common envelope binary V470 Cam have been obtained; with these and 380 useable eclipse times in the literature, two circumbinary brown dwarfs having orbital periods of 7.87 ± 0.08 and 13.27 ± 0.16 years were found to give an excellent fit to cyclic residuals resulting from a quadratic ephemeris fit. Irrespective of the excellent fit, it would be premature to claim that the V470 Cam binary is accompanied by two orbiting brown dwarfs; at the very least more eclipse times are needed to confirm the result

    https://solar-flux.forumotion.com/t2073-two-circumbinary-brown-dwarfs-at-v470-cam
    – – –
    Exoplanet.eu data (links in report) suggest an orbit ratio of 59:35 [60:36 = 5:3].

  21. oldbrew says:

    The forcing uncertainties and lack of observational measurements in the top-to-bottom global ocean preclude an assessment that modern warmth is due to anthropogenic activities.
    By Kenneth Richard on 5. November 2020

    Key points from a new paper (Gebbie, 2021):

    • 93% of the changes to the Earth’s energy budget, manifested as warming of the Earth system, are expressed in the global ocean. Just 1% of global warming is atmospheric.

    • Even with the advent of “quasi-global” temperature sampling of the ocean since 2005 (ARGO), these floats “do not measure below 2,000-m depth.” This means that temperature changes in “approximately half the ocean’s volume” are still not being measured today.

    • To detect the effects of anthropogenic forcing, it would require energy budget imbalance measurement precision of 0.1 W/m² at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Uncertainty in the forcing changes affecting climate are ±4 W/m², meaning that uncertainty is about 80 times greater than an anthropogenic signal detection.

    • Past changes in global ocean heat content, such as the last deglaciation, have been 20 times larger than modern changes.

    • Ocean heat storage during the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Anomaly, or MCA) was much greater than modern. Modern global ocean heat uptake is “just one-third” of what is required to reach the levels attained during Medieval times.

    https://notrickszone.com/2020/11/05/new-study-effectively-eliminates-confidence-in-human-attribution-for-modern-global-warming/

  22. oldbrew says:

    Richard Pilger, a prosecutor at the Department of Justice (DOJ) who played a role in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) targeting of conservative groups, resigned his post Monday evening rather than investigate potential voter fraud in the 2020 presidential election.

    Earlier Monday, U.S. Attorney General William Barr issued a memo directing prosecutors to investigate potential voter fraud. He said that prosecutors should not, however, focus on “specious, speculative, fanciful or far-fetched claims.”
    . . .
    “Having familiarized myself with the new policy and its ramifications,” he wrote, “I must regretfully resign from my role as director of the Election Crimes Branch.”

    https://www.breitbart.com/2020-election/2020/11/09/richard-pilger-linked-to-irs-scandal-resigns-post-at-doj-over-voter-fraud-memo/
    – – –
    But he somehow moved sideways to another job, dodging the pressure.

    The heat is on.

  23. Ken Gregory says:

    I submit the proposed guest article for your consideration titled “Climate Sensitivity Considering Urban and Natural Warming” in Word and PDF formats for your website. The article summarizes the longer paper linked at the beginning of the article.
    ‘https://friendsofscience.org/assets/files/Climate_Sensitivity_Energy_Balance_Gregory-2020-blog.pdf’
    https://friendsofscience.org/assets/files/Climate_Sensitivity_Energy_Balance_Gregory-2020-blog.docx

  24. oldbrew says:

    RECAP: THE CHANGING JET STREAM AND GLOBAL COOLING
    NOVEMBER 11, 2020 CAP ALLON

    Studying the JET STREAM has long been an indicator of the weather to come, and to study the jet stream attention must turn to the SUN.

    When solar activity is HIGH, the jet stream is tight and stable and follows somewhat of a straight path. But when solar activity is LOW, that meandering band of air flowing 6 miles above our heads becomes weak and wavy, it effectively buckles which diverts frigid Polar air to atypically low latitudes and replaces it with warmer tropical air.

    The jet stream reverts from a Zonal Flow to a Meridional Flow and, depending on which side of the jet stream you’re on, you’re either in for a spell of unseasonably cold or hot weather and/or a period of unusually dry or wet conditions.

    This forcing FULLY explains why some far-northern latitudes (such as parts of Siberia) have been experiencing pockets of anomalous heat of late, while the lower-latitudes have been dealing with “blobs” of record cold.

    It’s a phenomenon long-predicted by those studying the Sun, and one forecast to intensify as the Grand Solar Minimum continues its deepening.

    https://electroverse.net/recap-the-changing-jet-stream-and-global-cooling/

  25. oldbrew says:

    Ambitious but controversial: Japan’s new hydrogen project
    2 Nov. 2020

    The Hydrogen Energy Supply Chain is an experiment to see whether Japan can establish a durable supply of liquid hydrogen from Australia, to be burned to generate electricity.

    The hydrogen will be produced and liquefied in the Australian state of Victoria, where it will be extracted from a type of coal known as lignite.

    https://techxplore.com/news/2020-11-ambitious-controversial-japan-hydrogen.html
    – – –
    Not green then, unless they add expensive ‘carbon capture’ that nobody seems to want to pay for.

  26. oldbrew says:

    Planets with many neighbors may be the best places to look for life

    Single exoplanets with wild orbits hint at a chaotic past
    Nov. 16, 2020

    Systems with as many planets as ours are exceedingly rare, though. Only one known system comes close: the TRAPPIST-1 system, with seven roughly Earth-sized worlds (SN: 2/22/17). Astronomers have found no solar systems so far, other than ours, with eight or more planets. Extrapolating out to the number of stars expected to have planets in the galaxy, Jørgensen estimates that about 1 percent of planetary systems have as many planets as we do.

    https://www.sciencenews.org/article/planets-many-neighbors-may-be-best-places-look-life

  27. oldbrew says:

    Why Worry about Warming? Cold Is the Killer
    by Viv Forbes – November 16, 2020

    After today’s bountiful warmth comes the cold, dry, hungry phase of Earth’s climate.

    Fruitful warmth is no threat. Bitter cold is the real menace.

    https://thebfd.co.nz/2020/11/16/why-worry-about-warming-cold-is-the-killer/

  28. oldbrew says:

    Meet the hell planet with a magma ocean and rocky rain
    November 11, 2020

    Exoplanet K2-141b is fiery hot world that circles so close to its star that one side of the planet features a deep ocean of molten lava. Meanwhile, the other side is freezing cold.
    – – –
    In a new study announced on November 3, 2020, an international team of researchers described a planet unlike any in our solar system.
    . . .
    On November 3, scientists at McGill University, York University and the Indian Institute of Science Education announced that one such planet under study – called K2-141b – is even more exotic. It’s a world that is scorching hot on one side and freezing on the other, with a magma ocean about 62 miles (100 km) deep, “rain” composed of rock that evaporates and then precipitates in a regular cycle similar to the water cycle on Earth, and supersonic winds over 3,100 miles per hour (5,000 km/hr). Wild! The findings are based on data from from NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope.
    [bold added]

    https://earthsky.org/space/k2-141b-lava-planet-with-magma-ocean-rocky-rain-supersonic-winds-super-earth
    – – –
    Remarkably, the vaporised atmosphere mimics Earth’s – only with rocks instead of water.

    The extreme heat leads to them undergoing precipitation – as if they were particles of water.

    Just like the water cycle on Earth where it evaporates, rises into the atmosphere, condenses, and falls back as rain, so too does the sodium, silicon monoxide and silicon dioxide on K2-141b.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/11/04/astronomers-discover-extreme-planet-rains-rocks-has-lava-seas/

  29. oldbrew says:

    Scary video of man dodging falling concrete block here…see ‘A car was destroyed when an concrete slab fell on it from a Vladivostok tower block’.

    Vladivostok snowstorm: Emergency declared amid chaos and power cuts
    BBC — 15 hours ago

    The chief of the regional meteorological service, Boris Kubay, said the situation has been “aggravated by a strong gale wind that breaks everything”.

    He said a clash between two storms, one carrying hot air and another carrying cold, caused freezing rain on Thursday.

    The meteorologist said wires and trees were encrusted in ice up to 1.2cm (0.4in) thick, an occurrence not seen in 30 years.

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-55015516

  30. oldbrew says:

    Comical…

    Dutch journalist gatecrashes EU defence video conference
    Published 5 hours ago

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-55027641

  31. oldbrew says:

    UK to make climate risk reports mandatory for large companies
    Mon 9 Nov 2020

    Rishi Sunak says disclosures will be mandatory within five years as part of net-zero plans

    The Treasury said the new disclosure rules and regulations would cover a significant portion of the economy, including listed commercial companies, UK-registered large private companies, banks, building societies, insurance companies, UK-authorised asset managers, life insurers, pension schemes regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and occupational pension schemes.

    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/nov/09/uk-to-make-climate-risk-reports-mandatory-for-large-companies
    – – –
    Cue another outpouring of corporate mumbo-jumbo, posing as ‘tackling climate change’ 🙄

  32. oldbrew says:

    Study: Response of climate to solar forcing recorded in a 6000-year d18O time-series of Chinese peat cellulose (1999)

    There is an obvious warm period represented by the high d18O from around ad 1100 to 1200 which may correspond to the Medieval Warm Epoch of Europe (Lamb, 1966). At that time, the northern boundary of the cultivation of citrus tree (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Boehmeria nivea (a perennial herb), both subtropical and thermophilous plants, moved gradually into the northern part of China, and it has been estimated that the annual mean temperature was 0.9–1.0°C higher than at present (Zhang, 1994).‘ [bold added]

    ‘http://www.rengy.org/uploadfile/file/%E4%B8%AD%E6%96%87%E7%89%88/%E8%B5%84%E6%BA%90/%E6%96%87%E7%8C%AE/2000/Response%20of%20climate%20to%20solar%20forcing%20recorded%20in%20a%206000-year%20time-series%20of%20Chinese%20peat%20cellulose%20%20.pdf’
    – – –
    From the Abstract:
    The record shows a striking correspondence of climate events to nearly all of the apparent solar activity changes characterized by the atmospheric radiocarbon in tree-rings over the past 6000 years.

  33. oldbrew says:

    Electric Porsche averages 15 mph due to charging issues…

    Guardian: ‘Why did it take nine hours to go 130 miles in our new electric Porsche?’

    A Kent couple love their new car – but their experience suggests there are problems with the charging network

    The pair are not the first owners who love their electric cars to complain that the UK’s charging network is poorly maintained, complicated and hugely difficult to navigate via its various apps and payment systems.

    The latest electric cars require fast 50kW-100kW chargers to refill on the go but they are hard to find and are often out of action.

    https://www.theguardian.com/money/2020/nov/28/electric-cars-porsche-charging-network

  34. pochas94 says:

    For those who find this hydrogen foolishness amusing, here are a couple of videos that should keep you entertained.

  35. oldbrew says:

    Disruption after ‘thundersnow’ hits Scotland
    Published 14 minutes ago

    Police Scotland has reassured residents in Edinburgh after hundreds of people reported being woken by the sound of explosions.

    However, police said that what people were actually hearing was the phenomenon known as “thundersnow”.

    Two “extraordinarily loud” thunder claps were heard over the capital just before 05:00.
    . . .
    It comes after temperatures plummeted to -9.6C in Altnaharra in the Highlands.

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-55184493
    (inc. Met Office video about thundersnow)

  36. oldbrew says:

    Latest CO2 nonsense: prisons are bad for the climate…

    DECEMBER 4, 2020
    Mass incarceration results in significant increases in industrial emissions, study finds

    Between 1980 and 2004, 936 prisons were built in the U.S., compared with the 711 prisons built in the 168 years prior. McGee says the construction of new prisons, as well as the renovation of existing prisons, require substantial amounts of fossil fuels. Cement, for example, is one of the largest emitters of carbon dioxide in the built environment.

    “This is housing infrastructure that otherwise wouldn’t have been built,” McGee said, adding that most incarcerated people are forcibly removed from inner-city neighborhoods and transported to massive warehouse-like structures in rural areas.

    https://phys.org/news/2020-12-mass-incarceration-results-significant-industrial.html

  37. johnm33 says:

    It may be common knowledge here but it came as a surprise to me that all the moons are ‘tidally/gravitationally locked’ as shown here they rotate around ‘their’ planets as if on a record/disc. Something[?] about this suggests to me it’s a vital clue as to why phi?

  38. oldbrew says:

    johnm33 – tidal locking isn’t any mystery.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_locking

    We may have a modified form of it between Earth and Venus.

  39. oldbrew says:

    22-Year magnetic solar cycle [Hale cycle] responsible for significant underestimation of the Sun’s role in global warming but ignored in climate science (2020)
    Martijn van Mensvoort

    Key Points:
    • 22-year Hale cycle solar minima show for the period 1890-1985 a high solar sensitivity (1,143 ◦C per W/m2)
    • 22-year Hale cycle temperature profile amplitude (0,215 ◦C) is higher than for the 11-year Schwabe cycle (0,122 ◦C)
    • Influence of the sun on climate becomes underestimated when the 22-year Hale cycle is ignored in climate science

    https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/VI3LH?_s=ZwMq29KxakEp0mCZCUQ%2B1x1s%2B1Q%3D
    =====================
    Assessing the signals of the Hale solar cycle in temperature proxy records from Northern Fennoscandia (Nov. 2020)

    Highlights

    Eight proxy records of Northern Fennoscandia temperature (NFT) were analyzed.

    Evidence of a link between NFT and a 22-year solar cycle was found during CE 1700–2000.

    This connection probably extends to synoptic and even hemispheric scales.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0273117720305470
    [abstract only, paywall]

  40. oldbrew says:

    DECEMBER 10, 2020
    Hubble pins down weird exoplanet with far-flung orbit that behaves like the long-sought ‘Planet Nine’
    by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

    A planet in an unlikely orbit around a double star 336 light-years away may offer a clue to a mystery much closer to home: A hypothesized, distant body in our solar system dubbed “Planet Nine.”

    This is the first time that astronomers have been able to measure the motion of a massive Jupiter-like planet that is orbiting very far away from its host stars and visible debris disk. This disk is similar to our Kuiper Belt of small, icy bodies beyond Neptune. In our own solar system, the suspected Planet Nine would also lie far outside of the Kuiper Belt on a similarly strange orbit. Though the search for a Planet Nine continues, this exoplanet discovery is evidence that such oddball orbits are possible.
    . . .
    The exoplanet resides extremely far from its host pair of bright, young stars—more than 730 times the distance of Earth from the Sun, or nearly 6.8 billion miles. This wide separation made it enormously challenging to determine the 15,000-year-long orbit in such a relatively short time span of Hubble observations.

    https://phys.org/news/2020-12-hubble-pins-weird-exoplanet-far-flung.html

    Abstract: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/abc012

  41. tallbloke says:

    Chaeromon: interesting. A one way trip for space adventurers though.

  42. oldbrew says:

    Flakey climate research takes some punches…

    Slower decay of landfalling Hurricanes in a warmer world — really?
    Posted on November 17, 2020 by curryja
    by Frank Bosse

    https://judithcurry.com/2020/11/17/slower-decay-of-landfalling-hurricanes-in-a-warmer-world-really/

  43. oldbrew says:

    Geologists Find Evidence for Giant Underwater Volcano in Alaska’s Aleutian Chain
    Dec 3, 2020 by News Staff

    The Islands of Four Mountains, a small group of volcanic islands in the central Aleutians, could actually be part of a single, undiscovered giant volcano in the same category as Yellowstone, according to new research.

    http://www.sci-news.com/geology/islands-of-four-mountains-09119.html

  44. oldbrew says:

    Texas A&M Expert: New Clues Revealed About Clovis People

    A study by professor Michael Waters shows that tools made by some of North America’s earliest inhabitants were made only during a 300-year period.
    . . .
    “We still do not know how or why Clovis technology emerged and why it disappeared so quickly,” Waters said.

    “It is intriguing to note that Clovis people first appears 300 years before the demise of the last of the megafauna that once roamed North America during a time of great climatic and environmental change,” he said. “The disappearance of Clovis from the archaeological record at 12,750 years ago is coincident with the extinction of mammoth and mastodon, the last of the megafauna. Perhaps Clovis weaponry was developed to hunt the last of these large beasts.” [bold added]

    https://today.tamu.edu/2020/10/23/texas-am-expert-new-clues-revealed-about-clovis-people/

  45. oldbrew says:

    Changes in Earth’s Orbit Likely Kickstarted One of the Hottest Periods in History
    August 29, 2019

    At various points, millions or billions of years ago, Earth was much more toasty than it is now.

    One of the most notable hot flashes came 56 million years ago, during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, or PETM. It was a relatively brief period of rapid, abnormal warming. During that time, temperatures that were already far above normal spiked by around nine degrees Fahrenheit (5 degrees Celsius) over a period of just a few thousand years. Tropical conditions prevailed far beyond the equator, and ice caps were entirely absent from the poles.
    . . .
    The crux of the issue is the fact that Earth’s orbit isn’t the perfect, stable circle we usually imagine. Our path around the sun actually looks like a very slightly squashed circle, or ellipse. Astronomers call this eccentricity, and it varies predictably over time, becoming more or less squashed in a regular cycle. But the degree of eccentricity has noticeable, if subtle, effects on the climate, says University of Hawaii oceanographer and study co-author Richard Zeebe.

    “If we look at the past 100 million years, we see distinct relationships between changes in eccentricity and climate,” he says. [bold added]

    https://www.discovermagazine.com/environment/changes-in-earths-orbit-likely-kickstarted-one-of-the-hottest-periods-in
    – – –
    Drifts into warmist waffle at the end. But lack of ice caps has happened before, naturally.

  46. oldbrew says:

    Nov. 24, 2020
    NASA: Greening of the Earth Mitigates Surface Warming

    A new study reports that increased vegetation growth during the recent decades, known as the “Greening Earth”, has a strong cooling effect on the land due to increased efficiency of heat and water vapor transfer to the atmosphere.

    https://www.nasa.gov/feature/greening-of-the-earth-mitigates-surface-warming
    – – –
    Wasn’t water vapour supposed to be a ‘greenhouse’ gas?

  47. oldbrew says:

    Caribbean island residents told to evacuate as dormant volcanoes come back to life
    — 5 hours ago

    Residents on several eastern Caribbean islands have been advised to evacuate their homes after volcanoes that have remained quiet for decades rumbled into life.

    Officials issued alerts on the island chain of St Vincent and the Grenadines, home to more than 100,000 people, as scientists rushed to study the renewed activity.

    The government raised the alert level to orange for the volcano La Soufriere indicating it could erupt within 24 hours, and recommended people living nearby should leave their homes immediately.

    La Soufriere began spewing ash along with gas and steam, in addition to the formation of a new volcanic dome caused by lava reaching the Earth’s surface, the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency said.

    An eruption by La Soufriere in 1902 killed more than 1,000 people.

    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/caribbean-volcanoes-st-vincent-grenadines-la-soufriere-martinique-mount-pelee-b1781214.html
    – – –
    1902 was also the start of solar cycle 14, another low one (lower than SC 24).

  48. oldbrew says:

    Commenter on BBC Twitter: “That must be an old video. Every child knows snow is a thing of the past.”

  49. oldbrew says:

    JANUARY 4, 2021
    The uncertainties in measuring cosmic expansion
    by Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    Values deduced from the two primary methodologies—the properties of galaxies and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)—disagree with each other at roughly the ten percent level, yet each one is precise at the level of a few percent.
    . . .
    The problem is not so much the value itself—the age of the universe will not change by much either way—rather, it is that something unexplained is clearly going on connected with the fact that the CMBR data arise from a vastly different epoch of cosmic time than do the galaxy data. Perhaps new physics is needed.
    [bold added]

    https://phys.org/news/2021-01-uncertainties-cosmic-expansion.html
    – – –
    Is the CMBR really the CMBR, or something else?


    (‘What force…’ comment added by me).

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2021/01/05/how-is-the-universe-accelerating-if-the-expansion-rate-is-dropping/

    Gravity and ‘repulsive force’ don’t go together too well.

  50. oldbrew says:

    Quite a long post, but worth a go if you have a few minutes to spare…

    Discussing Flaws With Anthropogenic (Man-Made) Climate Change – 2021
    DECEMBER 30, 2020 ~ XENOHART

    https://thinkingerrorfree.wordpress.com/2020/12/30/discussing-flaws-with-anthropogenic-man-made-climate-change-2021/

  51. oldbrew says:

    They shouldn’t have needed the public enquiry, but got the right answer in the end…

    Lowther Hills wind farm project rejected by government
    Published 3 hours ago

    A wind farm project described as “visually dominant and incongruous” by a council has been rejected by the Scottish government.

    Developers scaled back the Lowther Hills scheme near Wanlockhead from 42 to 30 turbines.

    However, Dumfries and Galloway Council still opposed the proposals which were taken to a public inquiry.

    Ministers have now concluded their impact on the landscape would be “unacceptable” and refused the plans.

    A public inquiry was held into the project in late 2019 to look at whether it should proceed.

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-south-scotland-55617221
    – – –
    Enough is enough. There are already numerous wind farms in the local area.

  52. dscott8186 says:

    Join the Rebellion

    In light of Parler’s banning, please post a blog roll of alternative sites to google (like duckduckgo), facebook, twitter and youtube. There must be a price for their fascist behavior.

    At this point, it is only a matter of time before WordPress comes after you, prepare by exploring the alternatives and spread the word.

  53. oldbrew says:

    Attention cobalt miners for EV companies…


    🔼 🔼 🔼 (issued in 2016)

    https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/seven-substances-added-14th-report-carcinogens

  54. oldbrew says:

    Leeds council is away with the climate fairies…

    Connecting Leeds Transport Strategy sets out vision for city without the need for a car

    Leeds could become a city without the need for a car if an ambitious vision for transforming its approach to transport wins support from residents and businesses.

    https://www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk/news/politics/connecting-leeds-transport-strategy-sets-out-vision-city-without-need-car-3101083
    – – –
    Supermarket car parks will be redundant and taxis will make a fortune 🤣

  55. oldbrew says:

    The return of solar minimum, over a year since the official end of solar cycle 24…

    Sunspot number: 0
    Updated 15 Jan 2021

    Spotless Days
    Current Stretch: 12 days
    2021 total: 12 days (80%)
    2020 total: 208 days (57%)
    2019 total: 281 days (77%)
    2018 total: 221 days (61%)

    https://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=15&month=01&year=2021

  56. oldbrew says:

    Anyone can work this out…

    Calls for urgent review of smart motorways as coroner rules they present ‘risk of future deaths’
    18 January 2021

    A coroner has called for an urgent review into the safety of smart motorways after finding that scrapping hard shoulders “presents an ongoing risk of future deaths”.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2021/01/18/calls-urgent-review-smart-motorways-coroner-rules-present-risk/
    – – –
    If the hard shoulder ‘lane’ remains open when a vehicle has stopped in it, and no warnings are displayed, the risk is obvious.

  57. oldbrew says:

    Keystone XL pipeline in the US bites the dust. A win for empty virtue signalling.

    Blocking Keystone XL may ironically lead to an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Government analysis shows pipelines emit fewer GHGs when they make their deliveries compared to other modes of transportation.

    Denying construction of Keystone XL means much of that crude oil will travel by train or truck instead, producing greater GHG emissions, more air pollution and more traffic congestion.

    https://the-daily-trumpet.com/2021/01/21/joe-biden-is-killing-10000-jobs-taking-2-2-billion-in-payroll-out-of-workers-pockets-on-day-1-the-next-4-years-are-going-to-be-a-catastrophe-for-the-economy/

  58. oldbrew says:

    Article
    Open Access
    Published: 11 September 2019
    Switch Between El Nino and La Nina is Caused by Subsurface Ocean Waves Likely Driven by Lunar Tidal Forcing

    Jialin Lin & Taotao Qian

    Lunar tidal gravitational force calculated from NASA Apollo Landing Mirror Experiment and Earth’s angular momentum budget consistently show two sharp peaks at 6 years and 9 years, respectively (Supplementary Fig. 13). The western Pacific subsurface temperature at the thermocline depth also demonstrates sharp 6-year and 9-year peaks (Supplementary Fig. 14), suggesting a strong link between the lunar tidal force and the Earth’s ocean subsurface temperature. The 6-year peak of lunar tidal force matches very well with the 6-year component of ENSO.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49678-w

    See also Figure 4: Schematic depiction of the physical mechanisms leading to the switch between El Nino and La Nina.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49678-w/figures/4
    – – –
    This would fit in with de Rop’s calculations, i.e. one anomalistic year ‘lost’ every 1799, so one ‘6-year’ cycle = 1799/300 anom. yrs. (1800/300 = 6).
    https://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2020/05/10/a-proof-of-de-rops-long-term-lunar-cycle-1799-anomalistic-years/
    – – –
    Update: the ‘6-year period’ is when the number of lunar nodal and apsidal cycles sums to 1, hence a repeating period.

  59. poly says:

    mmmmm, looks like Ian Wilson was on the right track with his ENSO lunar forcing work . . .

  60. Paul Vaughan says:

    poly: mmm = misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation

    Don’t forget the thermal tides (e.g. interhemispheric & equator-pole heat engines).

    Thinking in anomalies (from annual cycle) rather than absolutes may account for some of the widespread ignorance. You can’t even get QBO (an obvious signal in ENSO) without thermal.

    Piers Corbyn was the one that straightened us out on that way back in 2009. Paul Pukite was another who understood nonlinear aliasing.

    Back in the day Bill Illis used to keep us informed about the waves discussed in JL&TQ2019. Recall his counsel: ENSO is zero-sum.

    Observations clearly indicate that the dominant multidecadal & centennial meridional flows on Earth are a function of thermal tides, not gravitational tides. The heat engines (and consequent mixing) are not driven by gravity.

    The percentage of people thinking clearly about this in online climate discussion might be less than 1%. Newcomers are immersed in anomalies. They are not taught heat engine fundamentals (for example as covered in Sidorenkov’s classic book).

    ENSO & other interannual variations, solar wind (remember geomagnetic is BV^2), & volcanicity share intermittently strongly synchronized statistical properties.

    All the water (and other materials) being tossed around and between material phases changes the chord being played on these different physical instruments. I think of the fluids and material phases as part of the Earth-Moon unit because Earth-Moon (not a point mass nor even 2 point masses) is embedded as a unit in the solar system.

    Some of the speculation about solar wind appears backwards. If I had several hundred thousand dollars I would undertake a formidable project. I have prototype tools for superior diagnostic exploration of synchronization. I froze the development of the project 7 or 8 years ago. Such a project takes more resources than I have.

    I spent 10 minutes looking at JL&TQ2019 highlights.
    Then within 5 minutes I noticed:

    Review

    5.99685290323073 = (18.6129690579708)*(8.84735335058712) / (18.6129690579708 + 8.84735335058712)
    9.07111296530374 = (9.30648452898541)*(8.84735335058712)/((9.30648452898541+8.84735335058712)/2)
    18.6129690579708 = slip(9.07111296530374,5.99685290323073)

    R(p,1/2,7) = 24.067904774739 = ⌊(e^√7π)^(1/12)⌉^12 – e^√7π for p=2,3,4,6,12

    207.99910260293 ~= 208
    415.99820520586 = slip(slip(24.067904774739,19.8650360864628),19.8650360864628)
    831.99641041172
    1663.99282082344

    Extension

    3.61018405510939 = (9.07111296530374)*(5.99685290323073) / (9.07111296530374 + 5.99685290323073)

    3.61803370893204 = (1663.99282082344)*(3.61018405510939) / (1663.99282082344 – 3.61018405510939)
    3.6180339887499 = φ√5
    -0.000007733975 = % error

    208.886702738154 = (49000)*(208) / (49000 – 208)
    208.886643858908 (JS slip cycle)
    0.000028187176 = % error

    A lot of stuff in the solar system attaches too neatly to 70^2 = 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 + … + 22^2 + 23^2 + 24^2 to be by chance (see recent 1470, 2400, & Scafetta threads).

  61. Paul Vaughan says:

    mods: calculations, filter

  62. oldbrew says:

    Stand by for periodical cicadas.

    17-year cicadas are due to surface this year. Expect billions.
    https://eu.dispatch.com/story/news/2021/01/27/periodical-cicadas-due-surface-year-expect-billions/4261339001/

    Evolution
    Not only are the periodical cicada lifecycles curious for their prime numbers 13 or 17, but also their evolution is intricately tied to one- and four-year changes in their lifecycles.[20][22] One-year changes are less common than four-year changes and are probably tied to variation in local climatic conditions. Four-year early and late emergences are common and involve a much larger proportion of the population than one-year changes.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodical_cicadas#Evolution

    13*17 years = 221 years = ~10 solar Hale cycles.

    Wikipedia points out the 221 year intervals:
    ‘The 17-year periodical cicadas are distributed across the Eastern, upper Midwestern, and Great Plains states within the U.S., while the 13-year cicadas occur in the Southern and Mississippi Valley states, but some may overlap slightly. For example, broods IV (17-year cycle) and XIX (13-year cycle) overlap in western Missouri and eastern Oklahoma.[40][41] Their emergences should again coincide in 2219, 2440, 2661, etc., as they did in 1998.’ [bold added]

    Note the *etc.*

    From 1998: 13- and 17-year cicadas coincided for first time since 1777
    https://web.archive.org/web/20201216054416/https://www.stltoday.com/news/from—and–year-cicadas-coincided-for-first/article_90a50a68-7cf3-11e0-8ecd-001a4bcf6878.html

  63. oldbrew says:

    JANUARY 28, 2021
    First evidence that water can be created on the lunar surface by Earth’s magnetosphere

    By comparing a time series of water surface maps before, during and after the magnetosphere transit, the researchers argue that lunar water could be replenished by flows of magnetospheric ions, also known as “Earth wind.” The presence of these Earth-derived ions near the moon was confirmed by the Kaguya satellite, while THEMIS-ARTEMIS satellite observations were used to profile the distinctive features of ions in the solar wind versus those within the magnetosphere Earth wind.

    https://phys.org/news/2021-01-evidence-lunar-surface-earth-magnetosphere.html

  64. oldbrew says:

    The electric aircraft not arriving any time soon…

    Opportunities and challenges for electric propulsion of airliners
    by Diego Lentini; Hernán E. Tacca
    International Journal of Sustainable Aviation (IJSA), Vol. 6, No. 4, 2020

    Abstract: The growth of air traffic implies an increase of emissions (greenhouse and ozone depleting gases) from the global air fleet. Innovative solutions are therefore urgently required. Among them, electric aviation is the object of much current interest. The present paper discusses the accompanying opportunities as well as challenges, with a focus on costs and operability. In order to take full advantage of electric propulsion, dedicated airframes are indicated, featuring boundary layer ingestion, distributed propulsion and other elements. Different options for electric propulsion are reviewed, and their pros and cons highlighted. In particular, all electric aircraft suffer from severe range limitations, turbo electric aircrafts become appealing only if fed with liquid hydrogen (with the accompanying problems), while hybrid-electric aircrafts can lead to a somewhat reduced wing area (then weight). Other economical and operational issues are also considered, including cost per kWh (however shown to be a misleading indicator) and that per unit payload mass, maintenance, sources of electric energy for recharge.

    Online publication date:: Mon, 25-Jan-2021

    http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=112645
    – – –
    Summary (quote): all electric aircraft suffer from severe range limitations

  65. NeilC says:

    I thought you may be interested in NO CLIMATE CHANGE IN GLASGOW FOR COP26

    https://www.weather-research.com/articles/countdown-to-unfcc-cop26-glasgow

  66. oldbrew says:

    Overheating planet latest…

  67. oldbrew says:

    The green flash…

    ‘When a layer of extra-warm air sits atop a layer of colder air, the sun can be split in two, producing a green flash.’
    https://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=02&month=02&year=2021

  68. oldbrew says:

    Veolia is set to begin trials on a new carbon capture technology designed for energy recovery facilities (ERF).
    . . .
    The captured carbon could then be used in greenhouses to boost plant growth…

    https://www.energylivenews.com/2021/02/02/veolia-starts-carbon-capture-trials-in-energy-recovery-facilities/

    🙄

  69. oldbrew says:

    Thunder down under…or not.

    Nasa probes ‘meteorite crash’ in Australian playground… but it turns out to be school project
    1 day ago

    An Australian primary school was asked to submit a report to Nasa’s Kennedy Space Centre after pictures of a “meteorite crash” in the playground were shared around the world.

    Hundreds of amateur meteorologists [sic] turned their attention to Malanda State School in Queensland after images of the charred rock were shared on the Facebook page Australia Crash Investigation Unit.

    One person claimed they saw the “meteorite” coming down from Newcastle in New South Wales.

    Others were more suspicious, noting that if the rock had fallen from space it would have left a bigger impact.

    https://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/nasa-probe-meteorite-crash-australia-school-b918418.html

  70. oldbrew says:

    FEBRUARY 9, 2021
    New factor in the carbon cycle of the Southern Ocean identified

    Earlier research suggested that greater phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean was a key contributor to the onset of the ice ages over the past 2.58 million years. More phytoplankton was able to bind more CO2, which was removed from the atmosphere. As a result, average global temperatures further declined. “So it’s critical that we understand exactly what processes regulate phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean,” Dr. Browning points out.

    Indeed, along with iron, manganese is another essential micronutrient required by every photosynthetic organism, from algae to oak trees. In most of the ocean, however, enough manganese is available to phytoplankton that it does not limit its growth.

    Measurements in remote regions of the Southern Ocean, on the other hand, have shown much lower manganese concentrations.

    https://phys.org/news/2021-02-factor-carbon-southern-ocean.html

  71. oldbrew says:

    FEBRUARY 10, 2021
    Astronomers confirm orbit of most distant object ever observed in our solar system

    Farfarout’s average distance from the Sun is 132 astronomical units (au); 1 au is the distance between the Earth and Sun. For comparison, Pluto is only 39 au from the Sun. The newly discovered object has a very elongated orbit that takes it out to 175 au at its most distant, and inside the orbit of Neptune, to around 27 au, when it is close to the Sun.

    Farfarout’s journey around the Sun takes about a thousand years, crossing the massive planet Neptune’s orbit every time. This means Farfarout has likely experienced strong gravitational interactions with Neptune over the age of the solar system, and is the reason why it has such a large and elongated orbit.

    “A single orbit of Farfarout around the Sun takes a millennium,” said Tholen. “Because of this long orbital, it moves very slowly across the sky, requiring several years of observations to precisely determine its trajectory.”

    https://phys.org/news/2021-02-astronomers-orbit-distant-solar.html
    – – –
    So its average distance from the Sun would be beyond the heliopause.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliosphere#Heliopause

  72. oldbrew says:

    FEBRUARY 5, 2021
    New research shows geothermal heating may have limited longevity

    They have found that geothermal energy, after working well initially, weakens until after a generation or maybe a half-century, it becomes generally ineffective. This decline is due to shifts in the temperature gradient, a key element to geothermal heating.

    https://techxplore.com/news/2021-02-geothermal-limited-longevity.html
    – – –
    Ground source heat pumps…hmmm.

  73. oldbrew says:

  74. oldbrew says:

    Smart motorway deaths: police could find Highways England ‘criminally responsible’

    Police demand coroner’s evidence to establish if crime has been committed for removing hard shoulder and if further investigation is needed

    14 February 2021

    South Yorkshire Police is to examine files about Jason Mercer and Alexandru Murgeanu being killed on the M1 to “determine if a crime has been committed” and decide whether a “further criminal investigation” should be launched.

    David Urpeth, the Sheffield coroner, ruled last month that a lack of hard shoulder on the M1 contributed to the deaths of Mr Mercer, 44, and Mr Murgeanu, 22, in June 2019.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2021/02/14/smart-motorway-deaths-police-could-find-highways-england-criminally/

  75. oldbrew says:

    Trace Gas Orbiter Detects Hydrogen Chloride Gas in Atmosphere of Mars
    Feb 17, 2021

    http://www.sci-news.com/space/hydrogen-chloride-mars-09362.html

    This graphic describes a possible new chemistry cycle on Mars following the discovery of hydrogen chloride in the Martian atmosphere. Salts in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl) are widespread on the surface of Mars. Winds lift this salty dust into the atmosphere. Sunlight warms the dusty atmosphere causing water vapor released from ice caps to rise. The salty dust reacts with atmospheric water to release chlorine (Cl), which itself then reacts with molecules containing hydrogen (H) to create hydrogen chloride (HCl). A similar process takes place on Earth: sea salt is blown into the air, and if it mixes with water vapor, chlorine becomes available for chemical reactions that form HCl. Further reactions could see the chlorine or hydrogen chloride-rich dust return to the surface of Mars perhaps as perchlorates, a class of salt made of oxygen and chlorine. HCl is observed to quickly appear and disappear from the atmosphere so it must be created and destroyed rapidly, with some fraction returned to the surface. The TGO observations suggest this might be an annual process driven by the changing seasons, specifically the warming of the southern hemisphere ice cap during southern summer, which releases water vapor into the atmosphere. The extra warmth also generates strong winds as air moves from warm to cool regions. In turn, the winds lift more dust, triggering regional and global dust storms. Image credit: ESA.

  76. oldbrew says:

    Signs of a hidden Planet Nine in the solar system may not hold up

    A remote planet isn’t ruled out, but evidence for one may be an illusion

    “On Twitter, people have been very into saying that this kills Planet Nine,” Napier says. “I want to be very careful to mention that this does not kill Planet Nine. But it’s not good for Planet Nine.”

    https://www.sciencenews.org/article/hidden-planet-nine-solar-system-evidence-may-not-hold-up

  77. oldbrew says:

    FEBRUARY 24, 2021
    Asteroid dust found in crater closes case of dinosaur extinction

    The telltale sign of asteroid dust is the element iridium—which is rare in the Earth’s crust, but present at elevated levels in certain types of asteroids. An iridium spike in the geologic layer found all over the world is how the asteroid hypothesis was born. In the new study, researchers found a similar spike in a section of rock pulled from the crater. In the crater, the sediment layer deposited in the days to years after the strike is so thick that scientists were able to precisely date the dust to a mere two decades after impact.
    . . .
    Researchers estimate that the dust kicked up by the impact circulated in the atmosphere for no more than a couple of decades—which, Gulick points out, helps time how long extinction took.

    “If you’re actually going to put a clock on extinction 66 million years ago, you could easily make an argument that it all happened within a couple of decades, which is basically how long it takes for everything to starve to death,” he said.

    https://phys.org/news/2021-02-asteroid-crater-case-dinosaur-extinction.html

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