Major earthquake hits Nepal

Posted: April 25, 2015 by oldbrew in Earthquakes

Earthquake zone [credit: BBC]

Earthquake zone [credit: BBC]

BBC reports: Several thousand* people [*last Talkshop update: 28 April] are known to have died in a powerful earthquake that struck Nepal, wrecking many historic buildings, officials have said.

The quake measured 7.9 and struck an area between the capital Kathmandu and the city of Pokhara, the US Geological Survey said.

Tremors were felt across the region, as far afield as Pakistan, Bangladesh and neighbouring India.

A Nepali minister said there had been “massive damage” at the epicentre.

Report (on first day of ‘quake): Nepal earthquake: More than 100 dead, many injured – BBC News.

  1. Michele says:

    … and Calbuco (Chile) eruption ….

    Venus is coming.
    I think a initial shock with Venus magnetosphere is in progress
    and there are two planetary alignment in this days.
    See image

  2. Bob Weber says:

    Michele, there were 7 M-flares on April 21, preceding the Chilean volcano. GOES protons elevated in recent days preceding the earthquakes.

    How geo-effective was the Venus magnetosphere on the day of the eruption, and the earthquake(s)?

  3. oldbrew says:

    The solar simulator confirms a Jupiter-Venus conjunction 25 April +/- a day or so.
    One every ~237 days.

  4. ren says:

    Bob Weber says:
    April 25, 2015 at 4:53 pm
    Michele, there were 7 M-flares on April 21, preceding the Chilean volcano. GOES protons elevated in recent days preceding the earthquakes.
    100 %.


    Again look at the geological activity following the geomagnetic storm of Apr. 16.

    I think if solar activity goes into a very quiet mode that brings the AP index to a reading of less then 5 on a monthly basis but for the other 1% of the time a burst of solar activity takes place resulting in a geomagnetic storm of say K8(AP index 200+ or so ) or higher that this will result in creating a shock to the earth’s core (shock 1)and magnetosphere(shock 2 ) which spurs major geological activity. The first shock is a constant increase of MUONS into the core of the earth a by product of galactic cosmic rays (due to prolonged weak solar conditions) combined with a massive flux of charge particles(the 2nd shock) from the geomagnetic storm disrupting the earth’s magnetosphere and thus earth’s geomagnetic field. These two shocks for lack of a better word then combine to create just enough added instability to the already unstable plates to bring about major geological activity.

    The more extreme, the relative values of the AP index becomes, the greater the geological activity.

    The weaker geomagnetic field of the earth compounding these effects.

  6. craigm350 says:

    Michelle the M8.2 (which was not so shallow) in Nepal 15/1/1934 had the moon passing between E-V. The brush you highlight could well be in effect.

    Bob’s comments also noted by Ben Davidson, but hard to miss following solar and geo fluxes the past few days. A low pressure system was also over the area (‘Earthspot’). The rain hampering efforts.

    Good coverage of events here

    “Another powerful M5.4 aftershock happened just 10 minutes ago. The last 24 hours approx. 50 aftershowks [sic] of M4 or more did happen in the greater earthquake area.”

    I also heard Piers Corbyn on RT this evening talking about aftershocks.

    1934 –

  7. tallbloke says: Live blog has the death toll over 1500. Our hearts go out to the people of Nepal in the aftermath of this tragedy. The himalaya is still growing as the Indian subcontinent continues to thrust into Asia. Geo-dynamic events are inevitable, their triggers still an area of ongoing investigation. My thanks to our researchers, who try to understand the forces at work, and form tentative hypotheses which may aid our understanding and prediction ability.

  8. Bob Weber says:

    I took a look at planetary alignments for Apr 21/22. The moon was between Earth and Venus on Apr 21; and on Apr 22, we had Earth-Mercury-Mars. Perhaps the alignments had an effect on the Sun, ultimately triggering the flares of Apr 21, and also had a direct effect on the Earth.

    I have always thought that if there’s anything to planetary theory as discussed here at the Talkshop, then there would have to be short-term effects as well as longer term effects that the PRP authors discussed. Here’s a run-down of the events leading up to the eruption and earthquakes:

    Spaceweather,com reported an Earth-directed filament eruption that headed straight for us, see where they said

    “Part of the escaping filament formed the core of a faint CME, which is now heading almost directly for Earth. The cloud should reach our planet during the late hours of April 21st. In combination with a solar wind stream already en route, the impact could spark geomagnetic storms around the poles on April 22nd, Earth Day.”

    The Earth-facing coronal hole on Apr 22 was a minor player in this I think. See the spike in solar wind density Apr 20, when SW speed was ~400 km/s, density spiked over 20, then diminished, followed by a 50% speed increase for two days, through the 23rd, from here

    Compare the PC Magnetic Index (archive plot set to 4/21 to 4/23), and compare that to the GOES x-ray flux for 4/21 and see the correspondence to the flares here and

    Hemispheric power spiked the highest prior to Apr 22 on April 16, at 66 GW, and was still lingering at 33 GW by the 22nd (background is about 10 GW or less). The spike was triggered by a high-density solar wind spike of ~17 on Apr 14. Followed by southern polar coronal hole high-speed solar wind nearly up to 700 km/s that caused a G2-class geomagnetic storm on Apr 16-17. Once again see, this time for Apr 14-23, and notice the magnitude of the G2 event as compared to the flare events.

    During the G2 event, the AL index, as induced from the magnetosphere ring current, dropped from zero nT to -400nT, and fluctuated between -100 and -400nT between 4/15 and 4/17, while Dst also went negative. Whereas from 4/18 to 4/21, through the flares, AL dropped roughly to -250nT, and Dst took a smaller dive than during the G2 storm.

    Since this research was done in a serial fashion as I wrote this, I will now conclude that the G2 storm primed the Earth, charged it up, and the solar flares both augmented and triggered the telluric currents that drove both the Chilean volcano, and the devastating earthquakes.

    I have high confidence in this analysis as I’ve already seen so many other such instances before.

    There’s your electric weather effects (electric, magnetic, electromagnetic) report for today.

    Try doing a statistical analysis on that…

  9. ren says:

    Magnetic storm and record Kilauea lava.

  10. Michele says:

    @ Bob

    I think that the two main physical factors in the earthquakes and/or climate, etc… are :
    Space (distance) & electric charges (electrostatics).

    I hypothesize (in vacuum) a planetary interaction similar to the experiments of konstantin with its Tesla coil :

    We go back to thinking CGS system of units

    Look the time :
    M 7.8 06:11:26 UTC
    M 6.7 06:45:22 UTC
    M 6.7 07:09:10 UTC

    Tomorrow ?
    Giovanni P. GREGORI

    “…..The general result (2) has a most important application. Indeed, whenever it will be feasible by some method to issue an alert for an eventual possible EQ which can be reasonably expected to hit some given area, by (4) it is possible to know that, during the 24 hours of every given day – and at every given site – the shock can occur, with 98% certainty, only during two time windows, each one of some very brief total lag…..”

  11. ren says:

    This is not governed by the nature of man. Nature needs attention and respect.

  12. Michele says:

    @ craigm350

    say : “….Michelle the M8.2 (which was not so shallow) in Nepal 15/1/1934 had the moon passing between E-V. The brush you highlight could well be in effect. …”

    I agree, 15-01-1934 8:43 UTC with New moon

  13. oldbrew says:

    ‘Major earthquakes hit Nepal on 75-year cycle’

    ‘Nepal has long been bracing for the “big one” but when 50 earthquake specialists gathered in Kathmandu last week for a seminar on how to better prepare for that devastating eventuality, they had no idea how soon disaster would strike.’

    Even the specialists ‘had no idea’.
    BBC report mentions an 80-year pattern.

    ‘The last rupture there was in 1934, hinting strain might accumulate westward.
    2015’s quake follows the pattern with a gap between events of 80 years or so.’

  14. craigm350 says:

    @Michele – thanks and sorry for the mistype on your name.

    @OB – BBC covered as well.

    Saturday’s magnitude-7.8 earthquake struck to the north-west of Kathmandu
    The last time the fault ruptured at this location was in back in 1344
    It was preceded in 1255 by a big event to the east of Kathmandu
    The last rupture there was in 1934, hinting strain might accumulate westward
    2015’s quake follows the pattern with a gap between events of 80 years or so

    The dates roughly align with the start of the descent into the LIA and the Wolf minimum.

    Carbon dating of moss entombed in Baffin’s ice revealed two sudden advances of the snow line that killed off the vegetation: a sudden cold spell between 1275 to 1300, followed by intensifying cold between 1430 and 1455.
    chillier conditions began during an especially active time for volcanoes. “The second half of the 13th century had the most volcanism of any period of the past 1,500 years,” says Alan Robock, an atmospheric scientist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N.J.
    a series of four explosions, each within a decade of the last, could have expanded the [Arctic] ice enough to make it stable, says Miller.

    Polar ice samples have revealed just such a series of eruptions, says Robock: an especially big explosion somewhere in the world in 1258, and three smaller ones in 1268, 1275 and 1284.
    Whether these events could have kicked off the Little Ice Age still isn’t certain. Two occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, which may have muted their impact. And some of the simulations run by Miller’s team didn’t lead to supersized sea ice cover, even with four eruptions. ”

    Full article (paywalled)

  15. Bob Weber says:

    Michele, interesting paper by Gregori. Figure 2 from page 22 has three plots, covering the tail end of SC20+all of SC21, SC22, and SC23. There were 1,215 eqs in the first period, 1,842 for SC22, and 3,311 for SC23. The disparity between cycles was not explained and I’m curious as to what could account for the differences and the increase in earthquakes over time.

    Also, there wasn’t a clear explanation for the ‘perpendicular’ trends from the first period plot (…” lesser amount of events that strike along a few trends roughly perpendicular to the law”). That plot raises questions as to why the perpendicular trends occur in the first plot and not the other two.

    If the solar impulses from the G2 storm and solar flares were responsible for at least the volcano eruption, and the lunar alignment is responsible for the earthquake, there ought to be data available in some form that shows how either is impacting the Earth.

    There should be some kind of satellite and/or ground-based measurements that reveal the lunar influence at 06:00 or 18:00 LLT, data that is continuous in time, as the moon always is overhead somewhere, and could conceivably be correlated to actual earthquake location(s).

    It raises another question, does the moon always trigger earthquakes twice daily, and if not, why not? From the data indicating the widely varying number of earthquakes from the three plots I mentioned, the moon clearly does not always trigger one in every case, otherwise those numbers would be closer together.

    Perhaps a statistical analysis of such alignments wrt solar impulses and/or other alignments would be in order now. Have such analyses already been done?

    I like Gregori’s idea here, and hopefully it is implemented soon:

    “Indeed, whenever it will be feasible by some method to issue an alert for an eventual possible EQ which can be reasonably expected to hit some given area, by (4) it is possible to know that, during the 24 hours of every given day – and at every given site – the shock can occur, with 98% certainty, only during two time windows, each one of some very brief total lag.”

    The scalar wave concept: why is the electrostatic potential difference called a ‘wave’? It’s not that I disagree necessarily, but the terminology leaves the question open, including how the wave is or could be measured.

    If you were going to submit a paper on volcano/earthquake triggers, what journal would you use?

  16. Bob Weber says:

    ren, that Kilauea lava/geomagnetic storm link is interesting. I’m wondering how much variation is seen in the lava over time… Does it go down noticeably during longer periods of low geomagnetic activity?

  17. tallbloke says:

    Worst Nepalese quake for 80 years. Death toll over 3000. Disaster relief urgently needed as water and food will run out quickly.

  18. suvanga says:

    it was a real disaster i request everyone to stay out of danger . please help people who are in damger OH god Plz save Nepal

  19. tallbloke says:

    Here’s a reasonably good correlation between M>7 Earthquakes, LOD and CMSS-Z-axis I’ve just done a (very) rough plot of.

  20. oldbrew says:

    No obvious time-of-day ‘preference’ for earthquakes found in this analysis:

  21. ren says:

    In the Himalayan it is snowing in Kathmandu rain.

  22. ren says:

    Bob Weber

  23. Bob Weber says:

    Thanks ren.

  24. linneamogren says:

    Get ready! The AGE cadres are about to unleash hell and place the culpability of this quake on C02.

    [reply] Bill McGuire has been a professional catastrophist for many years 😉

  25. ren says:

    2.24 pm: Rescue teams have airlifted climbers out of Mount Everest. Romanian climber Alex Gavan said on Twitter that three helicopters had reached camps 1 and 2, which are at altitudes of more than 6,000 metres (20,000 feet). Each helicopter is only capable of carrying two climbers due to the thin air, Gavan said from base camp.

  26. ren says:

    It will be more calmly.

  27. ren says:

    Magnetic storm operates in different directions.

  28. ren says:

    My reading with the highest sensitivity (1 unit of measure = 46nT), readout 75Hz
    Time UTC + 1 hour
    Reading consists of 200 25 thousand. measurements in three axes, scale micro Tesla.

  29. ren says:

    Sorry, readout consists of 25 thousand measurements.

  30. ren says:

    It seems that the most dangerous are sudden surges of magnetic activity of the sun.

  31. oldbrew says:

    ‘The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability’
    (open access article)

    ‘We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands.’ [bold added]

  32. craigm350 says:

    @Bob – after the Sendai earthquake I tracked quakes from M4.5 up with lunar phase. The majority of strong or unusual (an M4 in UK is unusual but not a ‘significant’ quake) were placed around the +/- 3d entry and exit from new/full moon, however I did note a significant number when the moon is 3/4 or 1/4. The entry/exit phase I could explain once I read Tim Cullen’s posts highlighted here but the 1/4 or 3/4 I had no idea. What I wasn’t looking at however was planetary alignments, specifically Venus. As Michele has confirmed that could well have been a factor in 1934. [as an aside based on the Venus transit & SC12 I had solar max at Dec 2013 – not that far off!!].

    I think there are lots of things going on. The ‘priming’ of the mag field is something that makes sense and could explain the lulls. I would also throw in a Vukcevic’s comment (he was fencing with the ‘pet’ Solar Physicist) I saw on an old WUWT thread about NASA saying odd cycles have a North magnetised leading edge in the solar wind (Vuk if you happen to be reading do you have the original article?).

    I have noticed quakes often follow bz tipping south – but not always. I am missing something which could well be the alignments Michele highlights and the ‘brush’ effect.

    Looking at the recent uptick (following on the heels of the solar flux uptick – notably sunspot 2321 which went ‘quiet’ when earth facing but activated afterwards (n.b. connectivity with Earth seems to quell spots – noted during the Maunder IIRC)). Another uptick & coronal hole stream seems imminent for the end of this month and into early May. The solar filaments (very apparent cresting eastern solar limb) look ominous and a coronal hole stream is due to hit as the moon

    Another thing to throw in the mix is the St. Patricks day storm-which should be a paper all on its own. It kicked off an unexpectedly large geo-effective storm – against predictions (not that I saw the aurora – cursed with cloud as with the eclipse, Venus transit etc). Dr Tony Phillips has noted the peculiarity of that event over at

    A good YouTube channel to look at for these events is VibesoftheUniverse

    He does keep going on about low energy field which seems (in his estimation afaik) to be related to Planet-X…however he provides a brilliant array of metrics to look at changes in the mag field. The deviations in earth’s mag shield are of particular note and how seemingly innocuous sw streams/cme have effects where you would expect a brush off. I’d say look for his analysis but the conclusions are debatable.

    Quite a few times he has highlighted events in the ionosphere and apparent connections which dovetail well with Piers Corbyn’s R periods. It makes sense of your ‘spikes’.

    Another thing I am intrigued by is Dr U-Yen’s Earthspots.

    Billy Yelverton (Mr2Tuff2)…

    …has some interesting experiments. If new to this I’d say try the two videos I highlighted here

    Check the second vid about 9m 50s in to see ‘ Earthspots’.

    Watch skeptically but enjoy.

    …and I wholly endorse Rog’s comment above on April 26, 2015 at 2:49 am. I personally feel many of us saw the ‘window’ opening. Hopefully others can take all this forward and offer something to mankind. I can only say our forebears were weary of ‘signs in the heavens’. Without a mechanism they still may have noted something the space age is only now helping us quantify.
    Exciting times to look at this stuff from an investigative and observational PoV but utterly, utterly horrible when it affects people. Our thoughts and prayers lie with those affected by this human tragedy.

  33. ren says:

    In addition to aftershocks that threaten to cause more damage, residents and crews searching for survivors and beginning to cleanup the destruction will now have to contend with adverse weather.
    Showers and thunderstorms will rumble on a daily basis through at least the middle of the week. The activity will be most numerous during the afternoon and evening hours, stated Meteorologist Adam Douty.

  34. craigm350 says:

    *  “The solar filaments (very apparent cresting eastern solar limb) look ominous and a coronal hole stream is due to hit as the moon” *approaches full.* (i.e. moon disturbs Sun-Earth?).

    Also I forgot to add…

    Calbuca = moon crosses E-V

    Nepal = moon crosses E-J

    So is the moon providing the ‘kick’ when ‘primed’?

    I have often noticed ‘pulses’ in quakes and especially volcanic eruptions. The Calbuco eruption in Chile has this in the mix

    SERNAGEOMIN [auto-translated]

    the first eruptive pulse Wednesday May [sic. April] 22, started at 18:05 hours, lasting an hour and a half, provided an eruption column 16 kilometers above the sea, preferably dispersion northeast. “Numerical simulations performed by the scientific team of SERNAGEOMIN actually predicted this behavior and allowed also noted that higher altitude winds would carry the fine fraction northward affecting regions of the Rivers and the Araucanía. The estimate for the deposit associated with this first pulse volume reaches 40 million cubic meters, “said the institution. Additionally, it was noted that “hours later, at midnight, after a period of relative calm, begins one second higher pulse energy eruption column height of 17 kilometers and 6 hours. The dispersion was again the northeast with high winds carrying the fine fraction north. The estimated volume was higher this time around 170 million cubic meters. The emission of ash was very weak, dominating the fumaroles, but the next day the issue is resumed with a persistent column of low height (2 km) to the east-southeast dispersion”

    I’ve often noted these ‘pulses’ watching Icelandic volcanoes (and others).

    How that can be statistically measured I leave to others.

    P.S. SO2 plume from Calbuco

  35. craigm350 says:

    @Linnea – see my post April 25, 2015 at 7:18 pm. One however was sarcastic, others believed I was looking for ‘an argument’ :s Following the Sendai quake in Mar 2011 I was following a message board where Jo Abbas (eco social justice warrior known for pressuring journos to make changes to articles – sadly I was a minor part of that ‘flak’ group) said (paraphrase) ‘I know it must be linked to climate change’!!!! (the contorsions to find a link happened to come around the time I was ‘awakening’). However if seismicity is increasing as CO2 rises then maybe Dr. Roy Spencer’s UFO correlation is more apt

    @Ren It seems that the most dangerous are sudden surges of magnetic activity of the sun.

    or drops! I think the flux, or sudden rate of change are key but I think Bob’s comments about ‘priming’ or loading could be what sets the stage. It could be an idea for us to visit M8+ again (since ~2001) and look at coronal holes, alignments/lunar crossings and pre events such as flares which may have ‘loaded the dice’. Sendai was preceded by a large Xflare and the Boxing day Tsunami+quake was at full moon.

    Is this, for example, Earth is negative and a positive oriented flare disrupts (and vice versa)? When coronal holes are seemingly the effective factor (they are present in significant majority of large quakes) how is the earth primed – negative or positive? Are we under a slow or fast solar wind stream?

    Finally the Van Allen Belt, how is it ‘loaded’ or not?

    As a further aside, I often noted precursors to activity such as small magnitude swarms in the Virgin Isles – something Ben Davidson noted as well – before larger movements. I have also noted UK activity coinciding with solar/lunar. I have some plots to update and if I can make cohesive will blog and maybe Rog will pick up – my notes far too messy at this time.

    I don’t know but just noting some things that have come up whilst observing since 2011.

  36. craigm350 says:

    @Ren April 27, 2015 at 7:51 pm

    Sounds like what Dr U-Yen and Ben Davidson call ‘earthspots’ – see comment above – proximity of low pressure systems, often increasing in power following solar flux, near earthquakes/volcanoes. (See also the linked vid by Billy c.9min in above).

    Coronal holes and big quakes…

  37. oldbrew says:

    BBC: The 7.8-magnitude quake struck on Saturday in the hilly district of Gorkha, west of Kathmandu.
    Aid groups say the damage could be far worse in rural areas than in the capital.
    Close to 300,000 people live in Gorkha.

  38. ren says:

    This article (started on 02/03/201) was prompted by the N. Zealand earthquake to establish if there is a link between the geomagnetic activity (magnetic storms) and acceleration of the earthquake’s occurrence. It is not claimed that geomagnetic storm is a primary cause of any earthquake. However if conditions for an earthquake are ‘ripe’ i.e. tectonic fault ‘gone critical’, then solar storm could be a trigger (not the cause) for it, and bring it forward for few hours or days.
    Scientists have been tracking and studying substorms for more than a century, yet these phenomena remained mostly unknown until THEMIS went into action.
    Even more impressive was the substorm’s power. Angelopoulos estimates the total energy of the two-hour event at five hundred thousand billion (5 x 1014) Joules. That’s approximately equivalent to the energy of a magnitude 5.5 earthquake.
    Where does all that energy come from? THEMIS may have found an answer:
    “The satellites have found evidence for magnetic ropes connecting Earth’s upper atmosphere directly to the Sun,” says Dave Sibeck, project scientist for the mission at the Goddard Space Flight Center. “We believe that solar wind particles flow in along these ropes, providing energy for geomagnetic storms and auroras.”

  39. It seems quite clear that when the geomagnetic field is disrupted geological activity picks up.

    That said the quieter the geomagnetic field is prior to the disruption the greater will be the geological activity.

  40. craigm350 says:

    @Ren –

    if conditions for an earthquake are ‘ripe’ i.e. tectonic fault ‘gone critical’, then solar storm could be a trigger (not the cause) for it, and bring it forward for few hours or days.

    Yes! Sometimes all something needs to collapse is a small disturbance be it a breath of wind or vibration. A family member used to walk past an old derelict building on the way to games (sports). All the children had to be quiet as they knew the buildings were ‘primed’ to collapse.

    Another component that occurred to me today, in part due to Billy’s video especially the 2nd video here
    – see from 14:40 and the bit at 18:45. Earth’s crust has ferromagnetic materials abounding. The moon orbits around us rapidly passing and the charge differs.

    24th August 2011.

    A solar wind stream hit Earth’s magnetic field during the early hours of August 24th, sparking geomagnetic activity around the Arctic Circle. “Bright, fast-moving auroras lit up the sky just after midnight,”[…]

    Hours after impact, the solar wind is still blowing at high speed (500+ km/s) but the density of the wind is declining rapidly.

    A growing coronal hole in the northern solar hemisphere was in an earth facing position as shown above. Sunspot number was relative low at 81, radio flux 104. The magnetic ‘jolt’ from a dense plasma stream was enough to allow a weakening fault to release. At 17:46:10 UTC an
    M7.0 earthquake occured in Contamana, Northeast Peru. Animals appear far more aware than concensus scientists

  41. ren says:

    An expedition doctor and base camp manager for a trekking (in winter???) group says that all those injured in Saturday’s quake-triggered avalanche have been evacuated and the dead bodies flown out

  42. ren says:

    Let us see the current solar wind.

  43. oldbrew says:

    stenies2012: on your link it says Mercury:Earth:Saturn will be aligned at the end of April, but on the graphic it looks more like Venus:Earth:Saturn?

  44. ren says:

    Rapidly decreases solar activity (increases GCR).

  45. Bob Weber says:

    Great points Craig, and also Billy Yelverton’s. I’d add that all the planets are affected by solar activity, each getting “charged up” by high density solar wind and intense UV/x-ray events.

    In a serial fashion, as the charged particles from the high density & speed solar wind that comprise the Parker spiral, the heliospheric current sheet w/sector boundaries, crosses over each planet, and, just as the Earth is affected by the power created directly at the planetary poles by those particles, and also the power induced in telluric currents under Earth’s surface from such encounters, all the planets in turn get charged up by the solar ‘impulses’. Also, flare activity photo-ionizes molecules in planetary upper atmospheres, creating ions and free electrons, which then act electrodynamically.

    With the inner heliosphere flooded with highly-conductive plasma during such events, one can imagine several simultaneously charged up planets in alignment(s) exchanging charge or in some kind of E-M resonance through the now higher density plasma and higher conductivity space between the planets as they pass by each other.

    Perhaps in days of old, during times of much higher solar activity outbursts, the ancients from all around the world witnessed such plasma discharge events between the planets, and etched in stone what they saw, what they feared, The Thunderbolts of the Gods.

  46. oldbrew says:

    Bob W: even lowly Saturnian moon Hyperion gets charged up.

    ‘This image was taken by Cassini when the spacecraft performed a flyby of the small moon on 26 September 2005.

    During the flyby, Cassini got more than it bargained for as Hyperion unleashed a burst of charged particles towards the spacecraft, effectively delivering a giant 200-volt electric shock. It appears that Hyperion’s surface becomes electrostatically charged as it is bathed in charged particles – both those constantly streaming out into space from the Sun and those trapped within the magnetic field of the moon’s host planet, Saturn.

    While astronomers expected many bodies throughout the Solar System to be charged, the data from the Cassini flyby represent the first-ever experience of a charged natural object in space other than our own Moon.’

    Read more at:

  47. craigm350 says:

    Ben Davidson discusses a sun-large eq (M8+) link.

    He highlights for Nepal (~6:48 onwards) Ma-Me-E + coronal hole + flux activity + sector boundary crossing [+ moon crossing E-V?]

    Very low solar the past few days – now 26 SSN radio flux 104.

    Everyone knows that high solar activity has a profound effect on the space around Earth. Less well known is that *low* solar activity can be equally transformative.


    PDF linked there shows solar activity horizontally

    Are sunspots an inverse for coronal holes?

  48. craigm350 says:

    The April 25, 2015, magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal created waves of energy that penetrated into Earth’s upper atmosphere in the vicinity of Nepal, disturbing the distribution of electrons in the ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of Earth’s upper atmosphere located from about 37 miles (60 kilometers) to 621 miles (1,000 kilometers) above Earth’s surface.

    They have provided a link to the data for anyone interested.

  49. Bob Weber says:

    Craig, perhaps it was the other way around… The ring current enhancements from the previous influences we already discussed do take time to discharge/equalize to ground.