New Zealand quake ruptured 6 faults

Posted: November 19, 2016 by oldbrew in Earthquakes, Geology

Region of most recent New Zealand earthquakes [credit: BBC]

Region of most recent New Zealand earthquakes [credit: BBC]


It seems the earthquake has reduced stress in some areas, but other parts may well have more than before. One expert said “The whole coast appears to have been uplifted”. LiveScience reporting.

The magnitude-7.8 quake that rattled New Zealand, killing at least two people and stranding thousands of people, completely transformed the underlying faults in the region. Six major faults ruptured as a result of the New Zealand quake, a new map reveals.

The Kaikoura earthquake struck the South Island of New Zealand early in the morning on Nov. 14 local time, triggering landslides, tsunamis and hundreds of aftershocks. And thousands of people were stranded when earthquake detritus dammed a river. During the quake, bystanders captured images of mysterious earthquake lights painting the sky in eerie blue and green.

To see how the massive temblor reshaped the landscape, Nicola Litchfield, a geologist with the geoscience consultancy group GNS Science in New Zealand, and colleagues flew over the South Island in a helicopter to take video footage of the region. The team compared before-and-after images of the faults in the area. It turned out the temblor had dramatically changed the earth beneath.

Four faults along the coastline ruptured and extended out into the sea, while another two faults ruptured inland, closer to the epicenter of the quake, Litchfield said. Ground-based GPS stations also reveal major motion at these faults, she added.

“The whole coast appears to have been uplifted from Cape Campbell all the way south to Kaikoura,” Litchfield told Live Science. “The ones right on the coast appear to have very large movements, almost 1 meter [3.3 feet] up and almost 3 m [10 feet] — by the looks of things — sideways as well.”

Now geologists are scrambling to figure out what this means for earthquake risk in the region.

Full report: New Zealand Quake Ruptured 6 Faults | LiveScience

Comments
  1. oldbrew says:

    Press report: Huge quake exposes problems in how New Zealand prepares

    The nation’s emergency call number, 111, fails after operators evacuate their building in the capital, Wellington. As ceiling tiles fall around them, operators think they’ve activated a backup system, but in their haste to leave have failed to do so.

    Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-huge-quake-exposes-problems-zealand.html

  2. Curious George says:

    To be always prepared for the worst is not an optimal strategy. I refuse to live in a permanent fear.

  3. oldmanK says:

    To the ignorant life is bliss; to the wise it is tragedy. Who will survive?

  4. karabar says:

    Life in paradise comes at a cost.

  5. Brett Keane says:

    I think that the fact of only 2 deaths so far from truly immense shocks, also says something. The 111 operators will feel like twits, but they are not to blame that someone better-paid did not fit in a double failsafe….

  6. oldmanK says:

    Curious George says:
    November 19, 2016 at 9:25 pm

    “To be always prepared for the worst is not an optimal strategy. I refuse to live in a permanent fear.”

    This thread is mainly about earthquakes, but disaster may come from many sources. The first impact cannot be foreseen, but the possible social collapse that follows can be many times be averted. The man-in-the-street can do little, but higher up should keep that possibility in mind and be prepared. Some years ago the IMechE issued a related report centred mainly on basic need – food.

    One major source of social disruption is total loss of electrical power for a substantial period.

  7. ren says:

    Brett Keane, a threat will occur in late November with another strong jump of the solar wind.
    http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/communities/space-weather-enthusiasts

  8. oldbrew says:

    Brett Keane: more cockup than backup on this occasion 😦

  9. suricat says:

    Posted: November 19, 2016 by oldbrew in Earthquakes, Geology.

    Oldbrew, the “earthquake lights” described, IMHO, bear a resemblance to ‘electrical supra-natural activity’.

    Global terrain is generally and electrically, in a ‘~normal state’ with the atmosphere. However, during a ‘volcanic upheaval event’, crystalline structures are shattered (much like the ‘piezoelectric’ effect, but unlike the, “piezoelectric effect”, its irreversible). This leads to the release of covalent ‘bonding’ electrons and a surfeit at the local surface of a -ve charge that upsets the “‘~normal state’ with the atmosphere” by alteration of the ‘PD’ (Potential Difference) between surface and atmosphere.

    ‘IOW’ (In Other Words), an ‘electrical imbalance’ between the surface and the atmosphere is introduced/induced by a ‘volcanic upheaval’ event, and as such, constitutes to be a ‘teleconnection’ between the ‘electrical activity’ of ‘Vulcanism’ and an ‘atmospheric reactance’ to it.

    “Now geologists are scrambling to figure out what this means for earthquake risk in the region.”

    For my part, the region between the North and South “Islands” is a ‘nascent caldera’. Thus, ‘the scramble’.😦

    It grieves me to say that ‘IMHO’ (In My Humble Opinion), NZ may become the modern day equivalent of Atlantis. Nuf said.

    Best regards, Ray.

  10. oldmanK says:

    suricat says ” NZ may become the modern day equivalent of Atlantis.” You raise a very ugly spectre.

    And it is not rising water that’s ‘done it’, but submergence – possibly from a global tectonic shudder. I am presently following a similar event – now I think reliably dated to a narrow 7k-5k bce. Hit here: https://www.facebook.com/melitamegalithic/photos/a.674567462718062.1073741860.430211163820361/674567472718061/?type=3&theater

    Linking to the subject of “preparedness” there is ample evidence of considerable loss of life at that time, but also of survival and picking up again in short time. Evidently a good awareness and knowledge of Earth’s occasional/periodic tantrums. (the 7-5k event is presently dated to circa 5M ago by the ‘establishment’, which also says something….).

  11. oldbrew says:

    suricat says:
    November 21, 2016 at 2:04 am

    Unfortunately for NZ I tend to agree with your negative scenario, but hope we’re unduly pessimistic.
    Worst case sees the South Island becoming a no-go area for human occupation apart from a few odd outposts perhaps.

    New Zealand earthquake so strong it lifted sea floor 2 meters
    http://edition.cnn.com/2016/11/18/asia/nz-earthquake-pics/

  12. Brett Keane says:

    Submergence does not seem to be the problem here. One of the complications is that uplift of one plate switches to subduction nearby, and vice versa. That takes some figuring…. But we are generally in an uplift phase now, and these phases take tens of millions of years. Our landmass above water shifts, but hasn’t vanished since we split from Australia/ South America/ Antarctica/Gondwana c.80ma. Evidence for a caldera would be welcome – we already have the Taupo one, a real whopper, and active
    Ren, please elaborate on the solar wind forecast and date..

  13. oldmanK says:

    Brett Keane says: ” these phases take tens of millions of years”. That is an old assumption – which is wrong. A few thousands can make a difference in certain active locations. The Holocene Max was an era that was very active.

    Certain concepts have not caught up with reality. An interesting view here: http://cosmictusk.com/wp-content/uploads/Kloosterman-Usselo-Article.pdf (the author passed away some days ago).

  14. Brett Keane says:

    @oldmanK says:
    November 22, 2016 at 7:17 am: Oldmank, that is cosmic heavy artillery, not seismology (grin). How is it relevant here?

  15. oldmanK says:

    @ Brett Keane:
    My link has two relevant points. 1) the possible ‘cosmic artillery’ that precipitated the Younger Dryas event. Later evidence indicates that it awakened crustal readjustment. At various points during the holocene there is clear evidence of repeated crustal change – certainly at active areas, example the Mediterranean basin.

    I have claimed that obliquity changed repeatedly between 2200 and 7500bce as indicated by man-made evidence – beyond the 24-22 deg. The Med saw submergence repeatedly (and probably also the area known as doggerland). Submergence resulted more from ice-load re-adjustment than from rising water. The area south-west of Malta island is a clear case (the evidence is particularly certain here, but long ‘detective’ story).

    Point 2) In page 3 of the link under heading “World Views in Collision” the author enters into the subject of change in ‘mainstream’ ideas/thinking. It indicates how the ‘establishment’ is today still stuck in 200 year old mentality (and I add even on obliquity which basics have never been checked since Stockwell near 200 years ago. I put my neck out on that).

  16. suricat says:

    Is it ‘coincidental’ that this ‘quake’ occurred within a ‘close timescale’ to a ‘Super moon’ event? I was curious, so I googled a bit and came up with this:

    https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=are+earthquakes+coincidental+to+a+supermoon+event&ie=&oe=#q=super+moon+dates

    This gives ‘some’ dates for a ‘Super Moon’ event, but needs more data to ‘co-relate earthquake propensity’ during this scenario. So I googled this, ‘dates of major earthquakes’ and came up with this:

    https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=dates+of+major+earthquakes&ie=&oe=

    I took the ‘wiki list’, which wasn’t helpful because the list was too old. However, other ‘searches’ than this may turn up the ‘co-relative data’ that’s needed to imply a ‘correlation’ between the ‘Moon’s’ ‘perigee’ and ‘Earth’s sizemic activity’.

    Best regards, Ray.

  17. oldbrew says:

    ‘One of the adverse effects of the supermoon is a stronger high tide due to the increased gravitational pull’

    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/supermoon-flooding-high-king-tide-florida-miami-fort-lauderdale-a7418236.html

  18. oldmanK says:

    Partial quote from oldbrew: “–effects of the supermoon is a stronger high tide”. The moving tidal bulge is visually very evident on water, but tidal pull on land has-or should have- similar effect. but water and land may not be in phase.

    Tide has a hydrodynamic effect on land (repeated swelling and dry-out), enough to keep faulting ‘on its toes’ and may be a bigger trigger.

  19. pg sharrow says:

    need I point out that the Super Moon of this northern winter is the start and the later new moon is the finish of this close approach. The greatest time of quake danger is right after the new moon, when both the sun and moon pull together and both are close…pg

  20. oldbrew says:

    Warnings of deadly earthquakes could be made minutes sooner by measuring tiny shifts in GRAVITY

    Small changes in gravity caused by quakes can be picked up instantly
    This could save precious minutes before a tsunami or earthquake hits
    Current detection systems rely on much slower seismic waves
    A sensitive global network of instruments could save many lives

    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3961222/Warnings-deadly-earthquakes-minutes-sooner-measuring-tiny-shifts-GRAVITY.html

  21. oldbrew says:

    New Zealand quake: The cut-off tourist town of Kaikoura

    The tourists are gone, the town is cut off and the sewage is backing up, but businesses in quake-hit Kaikoura are vowing to struggle on.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-38076443

  22. suricat says:

    oldmanK says: November 25, 2016 at 11:54 am

    “The moving tidal bulge is visually very evident on water, but tidal pull on land has-or should have- similar effect”

    On this point I concur, though observational evidence between a ‘solid/fluid’ and a ‘liquid/fluid’ must vary.

    “but water and land may not be in phase.”

    This qualifies my earlier caveat.

    “Tide has a hydrodynamic effect on land (repeated swelling and dry-out), enough to keep faulting ‘on its toes’ and may be a bigger trigger.”

    I disagree.

    The ‘weight of water’ upon ‘any’ land mass is determined by the ‘gravity quotient’, as is the ‘gravity quotient’ of the ‘land mass’ per se.

    IMHO the ‘fluidity’ is key to the ‘fracture’ of Earth’s more ‘solid/fluid’ structures (WRT geology) when ‘tidal forcings’ are taken into account.

    Would you agree?

    Best regards, Ray.

  23. oldmanK says:

    suricat, I was referring to something different. It is the effect of the hydrostatic pressure in the ground, especially in coastal areas and up to some distance near river banks. There is a small land movement linked to tidal level change. Nearby faulting would therefore see a small but continual stress fluctuation. (I have observed this on the Clyde, aeons ago now, to daily maintain a level datum for machinery assembly).

    The same may be observed inland with the small variation in the level of the water table with respect to the solid ground – likely due to the phase difference. (Observed, but never properly measured/tested, in an artesean well in a perched aquifer and fitted with level probes for pump start/stop. Pumping rate alters during ~24hrs – or lunar orbit.). That also keeps faulting out of long dormancy. An ongoing project aimed at studying ground movement over years has found a small continual subsidence at high risk areas.

  24. oldbrew says:

    The Reg.: Geo-boffins say ‘quake moved New Zealand by 2 metres at 3km/second

    New Zealand’s geoscience agency GNS Science has released videos showing the fault lines that ruptured during the recent earthquakes that moved the nation two metres north.

    http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/11/27/geoboffin_say_quake_moved_new_zealand_by_8m_at_3kmsecond/

    [This is a screenshot from one of the videos]

  25. oldmanK says:

    Interesting link oldbrew. The faulting is a reminder of that seen in Italy recently. The first video in the link is particularly interesting. At one point the guy there indicates the direction of the movement -at some 45deg- which would be a ‘principal stress plane’.

    For some beautiful scenes on Mediterranean geology, – and nature- watch this video if you have some free time:

  26. suricat says:

    oldmanK says: November 26, 2016 at 7:51 am

    “suricat, I was referring to something different. It is the effect of the hydrostatic pressure in the ground, especially in coastal areas and up to some distance near river banks. There is a small land movement linked to tidal level change. Nearby faulting would therefore see a small but continual stress fluctuation. (I have observed this on the Clyde, aeons ago now, to daily maintain a level datum for machinery assembly).”

    I’m not aware of the “machinery assembly” that you ‘observed’ on the ‘Clyde’ and doubt that the timescale was “aeons”, but the “hydrostatic pressure in the ground” is ‘relieved’ by the tidal movement of water. However, phase timings between the ‘movement of water’ and the ‘tidal effect’ upon ‘crustal media’ may well be pertinent for discussion.

    ‘Gravity’ is felt/applied by/to ‘crustal media’ (solid/fluid) in ‘real time’. ‘Gravity’ is also felt/applied by/to ‘water type media’ (liquid/fluid) in ‘real time’, but the ‘liquid/fluid property’ presents a different outcome from the ‘solid/fluid’ case. For clarity, I use the “solid/fluid” remark to represent a ‘geological movement’ of solid crustal material.

    It takes a lot of energy to alter the configuration of a ‘solid/fluid’ medium (think ‘Young’s Modulus, see :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young's_modulus), but much less energy is needed to alter the configuration of a ‘liquid/fluid’ medium. The “hydrostatic pressure in the ground” is the ‘ambient measure’ for the locality and nothing more (if you’re a ‘weather presenter’ :)). Hydrostatic pressure is the ‘local pressure supplied by ‘gravity’ for the locale ‘ observed at the instant it was ‘observed’, but a ‘torque’ quotient that ‘represents lag’ is never reported.

    I well understand that ‘hydrostatic pressure’ to Earth’s crustal configuration may alter the ‘configuration’ of/to Earth’s crust, but ‘other forces’ are also in play.

    If we look to ‘ocean/sea tidal habit’ we can observe a ‘lag’ between “high tide” and the optimum ‘gravity atractor’ point. This implies that a ‘lag’ exists between the ‘gravity optimum’ and any observation of this ‘peak’. Would this ‘lag’ be due to the ‘inertial value’ of the medium?

    I’ve many more queries.🙂

    Best regards, Ray.

  27. oldmanK says:

    @suricat: to clear one point, 50yrs ago (=aeons in my life) I was a trainee eng at a yard on the Clyde, at the time manufacturing the crankcase+brg hsing of large bore diesels. Ground level towards the river rose and fell from tide effect requiring continual adjustment. The rise and fall in “ground hydrostatic pressure” lifted heavy machinery out of level and out of alignment.

    These links provide some insight into the dynamics.
    http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/en/Terms/f/fracture_gradient.aspx
    http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/en/Terms/a/abnormal_pressure.aspx
    http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/en/Terms/a/abnormal_pressure.aspx

    Where these forces are fluctuating faulting in rock may be ‘awakened’. Coastal regions may be more prone, as well as mountainside (leading to landslide). I think quite pertinent to what is observed in NZ.

    For Italy see my earlier post. The Med seems to have increased activity (related: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpide_belt. )

  28. Brett Keane says:

    @oldmanK says:
    November 30, 2016 at 7:35 am: IIRC, our Southern Alps are now in their 3rd, called the “Kaikoura” orogeny. Rising up to 7mm/yr overall for c.400 miles. Also similarly but younger in the North Island over some 300 miles. Vulcanism is from subducted melt offset at the Kear-Marshall Boundary, with the epynomous Dr Kear being a Kiwi geologist. Understandably because we live on quite a laboratory, which is right now teaching us a lot more.

  29. suricat says:

    oldmanK says: November 30, 2016 at 7:35 am

    “@suricat: to clear one point, 50yrs ago (=aeons in my life) I was a trainee eng at a yard on the Clyde, at the time manufacturing the crankcase+brg hsing of large bore diesels.”

    This must have been similar work to what transpired at the ‘Paxman’s’ works, Essex, UK, near where I live. Was this ‘maritime’, or railway’ oriented (just curious)? To clear another point, you’ll not live for the duration of an “aeon”. See ‘Wikipedia’ on the subject;

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeon

    where the ‘geological, cosmological and astronomical’ definitions far outweigh the ‘time-scale’ of your ‘life time’, its important to define your level of understanding on this. However, I’m willing to understand that intention was to relate to ‘your life-span’. More ‘clarity’ is needed.

    “Ground level towards the river rose and fell from tide effect requiring continual adjustment. The rise and fall in “ground hydrostatic pressure” lifted heavy machinery out of level and out of alignment.”

    I don’t dispute that! Only that the “rise and fall” may have included parameters ‘beyond’ the ‘hydrostatic component’.

    “These links provide some insight into the dynamics.”

    The ‘link/links’ is/are ‘obtuse’ oldmanK, but I think we’re on the same page. Your first two links are OK, but the ‘third’ mimics the second.

    IMHO you need to explain the ‘link’ between earthquake propensity and cavities in Earth’s crust (not to mention the influence of gravity fluctuation).

    “Where these forces are fluctuating faulting in rock may be ‘awakened’. Coastal regions may be more prone, as well as mountainside (leading to landslide). I think quite pertinent to what is observed in NZ.”

    I concur.

    “For Italy see my earlier post. The Med seems to have increased activity (related: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpide_belt. )”

    Again, I concur. However, is this due to Earth’s Moon’s ‘proximity’ to Earth?

    Best regards, Ray.

  30. oldmanK says:

    @ Brett Keane: my interest in the link was regarding the present activity in a particular section -in a straight line -all along from the top of Italy to Egypt, active in the last 48hrs. Presently seen here http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/

    @ suricat —- For curiosity’s sake, it was large bore maritime (something i came across recently; I dismantled that after test run https://www.flickr.com/photos/kecko/9240580488 ). (aeon, as a ‘period of time’, and 50yrs seems so today)

    Re your observations, agreed. My input was mainly tied to oldbrew’s post re the ‘supermoon’ and its possible trigger effect on seismically active regions. (NZ is interesting but to me the Med is more so and of some concern). For curiosity’s sake see here, 2/3 down under ‘tidal trivia’ ( Amplitude of tides in the earth’s crust: about 20 cm.) https://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/tides.htm (Low cycle fatigue at grain boundaries may apply to the earth’s crust as well — just a thought)

  31. Brett Keane says:

    As a matter if interest, so to speak, young Ed Hillary practised on these upright also young ranges while he was training to fly wartime Catalinas as a navigator. Not far away, as a crow on oxygen might fly. And a little further over at Havelock, a Rutherford named Earnest went to school where his dad was teaching, the previous century. Vigourous men for a vigourous region?

  32. suricat says:

    oldmanK says: December 1, 2016 at 8:55 am

    “@ suricat —- For curiosity’s sake, it was large bore maritime (something i came across recently; I dismantled that after test run https://www.flickr.com/photos/kecko/9240580488 ). (aeon, as a ‘period of time’, and 50yrs seems so today)”

    Although my/your input from your link tells me that your region of understanding and interest is perhaps ‘railway’ influenced, I believe its more ‘wide-spread’. Please understand that the ‘general’ understanding of ‘aeon’ spans more than the ‘life time expectancy’ of any human, IMHO the ’50yrs simile’ is human irony.

    “Re your observations, agreed. My input was mainly tied to oldbrew’s post re the ‘supermoon’ and its possible trigger effect on seismically active regions.”

    As was my input similarly linked.

    “(NZ is interesting but to me the Med is more so and of some concern). For curiosity’s sake see here, 2/3 down under ‘tidal trivia’ ( Amplitude of tides in the earth’s crust: about 20 cm.) https://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/tides.htm (Low cycle fatigue at grain boundaries may apply to the earth’s crust as well — just a thought)”

    Thanks for the link, but the Sol:Earth barycenter is missing, as is the Sol:Galaxy barycenter. However, your link provides food for thought ‘oK’.😉

    I concur that ‘Med’ fault lines are more concerning to me than those in NZ (I live closer to them), but I’d expect any threat to be a reducing one since we’re past the ‘Super Moon’ event that enhanced gravitational activity (for all regions).

    TBH, my understanding of “grain boundaries” is limited, but its nomenclature engenders the supposition of ‘less solid boundary regions’. Would these be the ‘surrounding regions of tectonic plates’? If so, IMHO there may be more unstable regions on Earth than ‘Tectonic Plate Theory’ suggests.

    Best regards, Ray.

  33. oldmanK says:

    suricat says: ” Would these be the ‘surrounding regions of tectonic plates’? If so, IMHO there may be more unstable regions on Earth than ‘Tectonic Plate Theory’ suggests.” The surrounding regions of tectonic plates are ‘already failed – and repeatedly’ grain boundaries. That is what I had in mind. However there are, or would be as I expect, more — at the lower latitudes one trigger might be the cycling tidal bulge.

    (my ‘region of understanding’/toil is marine[6y] then stm/gas+diesel turbogen [38y])

    Look at the flashing points here today http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/ Grain boundary relaxation. Its ok, unless one’s sitting on it.

  34. suricat says:

    oldmanK says: December 3, 2016 at 11:04 am

    “…”

    That does it! You’ve gained my interest in ‘plate tectonics’ (a subject for which I’ve never displayed anything other than a ‘mild’ interest for in the past).🙂

    Your link implies a raised level of activity for ‘Earthquake propensity’ in and around ‘the Med’. However, this region is a ‘boundary’ between the Eurasia plate, the Arabia plate and the Africa plate. This is ‘new’ to me, but the ‘Arabian plate’ seems to be the ‘minor’ tectonic plate in this ‘abrasive tussle’ for a neutral/central placing within the ‘gravitationally induced (and I include ‘inertial effect’)’ field.

    I include ‘gravity’ with/as ‘inertia’ because the two are ‘indistinguishable’ without the/a ‘full vector disclosure’ betwixt the two (IMHO, Einstein also realised this). However, I’m drawn to this;

    “That is what I had in mind. However there are, or would be as I expect, more — at the lower latitudes one trigger might be the cycling tidal bulge.”

    Do you expect that “cycling tidal bulge” may be catastrophic? I doubt it. Although the region is ‘active’, there’s no reason to suspect that the region is due for a ‘catastrophic event’ (is there?) IMHO. Only ‘modifying events’ that relate to ‘tec plates’ ‘Grinding’ together, but don’t take my word on this, I’m a ‘novice’ on this subject.

    Look at the ‘wiki’ page on/about Plate Tectonics;

    where you may realise that ‘the Med’ may well become ‘dried’ again!

    These ‘forecasting’ models are a ‘pain in the arse’.

    Best regards, Ray.

  35. oldmanK says:

    suricat says “I include ‘gravity’ with/as ‘inertia’ because the two are ‘indistinguishable’ without the/a ‘full vector disclosure’ betwixt the two (IMHO, Einstein also realised this).” I am not sure I read correctly, certainly it is a complex subject, I would hazard, much more than we think/perceive.

    Quote: “Your link implies a raised level of activity for ‘Earthquake propensity’ in and around ‘the Med’.” Let’s take a look (but bear in mind I too am a novice), the Med at mid latitudes appears more active. In upper/lower regions, NZ seems to be awakening, but so is Iceland ( http://www.jonfr.com/volcano/ ). One theory says changing ice loading at the poles could do this. ????. Tidal bulge could trigger; the building of stresses may be from another source.

    As to the your important question “Although the region is ‘active’, there’s no reason to suspect that the region is due for a ‘catastrophic event’ (is there?) “, look here: https://www.facebook.com/melitamegalithic/photos/a.491235337717943.1073741833.430211163820361/491235341051276/?type=3&theater In their respective period they were all built axially orientated to horizon equinox sunrise point. (Herodotus quotes the Egyptians [their source ???] saying ‘-the sun changed its place of rising–‘ – a case of Silence Principle?, that: “What is known by all need not be explained” — he didn’t bother with detail. — that has made me review the established dogma and no longer buy it.) I do not know, I hope not. That earlier link http://seismic.research.um.edu.mt/ was all red by midnight, but no notice of the two earthquakes sensed/recorded also over here – see list for 3/12.

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