International research team cracks chemical code on how iodine helps form clouds

Posted: November 15, 2022 by oldbrew in atmosphere, Clouds, sea ice, ozone, research, aerosols
Tags: ,

Cumulus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean [image credit: Tiago Fioreze @ Wikipedia]


The article says iodine’s ‘catalytic role in particle formation enhances its effects in the atmosphere wherever it goes, whether that role is eliminating protective ozone molecules or increasing cloud cover.’ But it’s not clear why this claim would be correct: ‘As sea ice melts in the Arctic, more iodine can enter the atmosphere, increase cloud cover and enhance warming effects on the region.’ Effects of cloud cover differ between high and low cloud, for example.
– – –
An international team led by CU Boulder researchers has cracked the chemical code driving the formation of iodine particles in the atmosphere, revealing how the element contributes to increased cloud cover and depletes molecules in the Earth’s protective ozone layer, says Phys.org.

The research, conducted at the world’s largest particle physics laboratory, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was published today in the journal Nature Chemistry.

It’s the first time that any experiment in the world has demonstrated the mechanism for how the gas-phase form of iodine—known as iodic acid—forms, and suggests it has an significant role in atmospheric particle formation.

It comes at a time when atmospheric iodine is increasing globally, with current levels triple what they were 70 years ago.

Researchers hope that this new knowledge on iodine’s atmospheric interactions can be added to global atmospheric and climate models to help scientists better understand its environmental impacts—such as increased cloud cover, which could exacerbate global warming-related thinning of Arctic sea ice.

“This paper establishes a link between the sources of iodine, how they are emitted into the atmosphere, and particle formation, which through subsequent growth, seeds clouds,” said Rainer Volkamer, co-lead author on the paper, professor of chemistry at CU Boulder and fellow at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES). “That link didn’t exist before, and now we have established that link at the molecular level.”

This missing mechanical link between iodine sources and atmospheric particle formation is a multi-step process. First iodine oxide radicals bond with themselves, then react with ozone and water to make iodic acid, with (singlet) oxygen and hypoiodous acid as co-products.

Iodine is a common and highly reactive element that forms radical species which undergo rapid chemical reactions lasting seconds to minutes in the atmosphere.

Most iodine found in the atmosphere comes from the ocean—where it exists as iodide, also present in table salt. Its three-fold increase in the atmosphere over the past 70 years is linked to an increase in anthropogenic air pollution: as harmful, ground-level ozone reacts with the ocean-based iodide, it releases volatile iodine gasses to the atmosphere.

While iodine has been studied for 150 years, it is only in the past two decades that researchers such as Volkamer have revealed its important role within the atmosphere. In 2020, Volkamer and CU Boulder and CIRES researchers published research showing how iodine reaches the stratosphere and eats away at the ozone that protects the planet from harmful UV radiation.

“Iodine is the new kid on the block, among other halogens, that play into the recovery of the ozone layer,” said Volkamer.

Full article here.
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Study: The gas-phase formation mechanism of iodic acid as an atmospheric aerosol source

Comments
  1. […] International research team cracks chemical code on how iodine helps form clouds — Tallbloke&#8217… […]

  2. Jim says:

    Interesting, one of the cloud seeding chemicals, listed as a pollutant.

  3. JB says:

    “Most iodine found in the atmosphere comes from the ocean—where it exists as iodide, also present in table salt. Its three-fold increase in the atmosphere over the past 70 years is linked to an increase in anthropogenic air pollution…”

    OK, which is it really? And just how much is a 3-fold increase?

  4. They wrote:
    As human activity increases the availability of iodine in the atmosphere, due to our negative impacts on air quality around the world, this short-lived element’s impacts may be long-lasting. As sea ice melts in the Arctic, more iodine can enter the atmosphere, increase cloud cover and enhance warming effects on the region. And in the tropics, storms can send this iodine high into the atmosphere, where it impacts our protective ozone layer.

    OK, they have found one more thing they can use for scare tactics. As sea ice thaws in the Arctic, it is thawed by the warmer currents of the Gulf Stream and naturally when more Arctic Ocean Surface is exposed to the Fierce Polar Winds, more water evaporates and causes more clouds and more snowfall on the Arctic Polar Sequestered Ice on Land, in and around the Arctic. The land ice builds, and the increased volume and weight forces the sequestered ice to flow and form Ice Shelves and great Icebergs are pushed into the turbulent Saltwater and the thawing ice in turbulent Saltwater chills the ocean currents to below freezing temperatures, just like in Ice Cream Makers, this is what forms Sea Ice and stops the evaporation and snowfall during the following colder time period. The Little Ice Age followed the Medieval Warm Period with thawed Arctic Ocean and more snowfall on sequestered ice which flowed and caused the Little Ice Age. Sea Ice is thawed and also formed underneath Sea Ice Cover, this is not primarily caused by changes in Atmosphere, it is caused by changes in turbulent saltwater temperatures due to the addition of more or less land ice.
    Climate People do not even study changes in Ice as any part of the dynamic alternating warmer and colder time periods, their Climate Energy Balance Charts, which are programed into their flawed climate models, does not have ice included, but now they may add iodine as another frightening factor.

  5. dscott8186 says:

    So does this mean the chlorine in refrigerants is NOT the source of ozone depletion? And what is the source of the increased iodine???

  6. They wrote:
    It’s the first time that any experiment in the world has demonstrated the mechanism for how the gas-phase form of iodine—known as iodic acid—forms, and suggests it has an significant role in atmospheric particle formation.
    Then They Wrote:
    As human activity increases the availability of iodine in the atmosphere, due to our negative impacts on air quality around the world, this short-lived element’s impacts may be long-lasting. As sea ice melts in the Arctic, more iodine can enter the atmosphere, increase cloud cover and enhance warming effects on the region. And in the tropics, storms can send this iodine high into the atmosphere, where it impacts our protective ozone layer.

    They have found one more thing they can use for scare tactics. As sea ice thaws in the Arctic, it is thawed by the warmer currents of the Gulf Stream and naturally when more Arctic Ocean Surface is exposed to the Fierce Polar Winds, more water evaporates and causes more clouds and more snowfall on the Arctic Polar Sequestered Ice on Land, in and around the Arctic. The land ice builds, and the increased volume and weight forces the sequestered ice to flow and form Ice Shelves and great Icebergs are pushed into the turbulent Saltwater and the thawing ice in turbulent Saltwater chills the ocean currents to below freezing temperatures, just like in Ice Cream Makers, this is what forms Sea Ice and stops the evaporation and snowfall during the following colder time period. The Little Ice Age followed the Medieval Warm Period with thawed Arctic Ocean and more snowfall on sequestered ice which flowed and caused the Little Ice Age. Sea Ice is thawed and/or also formed underneath Sea Ice Cover, this is not primarily caused by changes in Atmosphere, it is caused by changes in turbulent saltwater temperatures due to the addition of more or less land ice.
    Climate People do not even study changes in Ice as any part of the dynamic alternating warmer and colder time periods, their Climate Energy Balance Charts, which are programed into their flawed climate models, does not have ice included, but now they may add iodine as another frightening factor.

  7. catweazle666 says:

    “Iodine is the new kid on the block, among other halogens, that play into the recovery of the ozone layer”

    THIS ozone layer?

    Discovery reveals large, year-round ozone hole over tropics
    ‘New’ ozone hole much larger than Antarctic ozone hole

    Date:
    July 5, 2022
    Source:
    American Institute of Physics
    Summary:
    Scientist reveal a large, all-season ozone hole in the lower stratosphere over the tropics comparable in depth to that of the well-known springtime Antarctic hole, but roughly seven times greater in area. The observed data agree well with the cosmic-ray-driven electron reaction (CRE) model and strongly indicate the identical physical mechanism working for both Antarctic and tropical ozone holes.

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/07/220705112242.htm

    And here’s me believing the ozone depletion was due to CFCs and we’d managed to fix it…

    I wish they would make their minds up!

  8. oldbrew says:

    This atmospheric physics lark is tricky 😉

  9. Graeme No.3 says:

    They want to ban CARBON, Chlorine, Nitrogen and now Iodine. What is next?
    And Iodine behaves much like Chlorine because it is in the same group in the Periodic Table. My questions are How much is that 3 fold increase in actual concentration? And why has it suddenly become a problem in the last 70 years?
    Isn’t there iodine in some sea weeds? Can they guarantee that the amount of sea weed has not increased recently (say 70 years) when the CO2 level has increased from near plant starvation level along with some increase in sunlight?

  10. oldbrew says:

    Graeme – the idea seems to be that warming causes more ocean evaporation, thus putting more iodine into the air.

    If anyone sees it another way, feel free to explain.

  11. catweazle666 says:

    “If anyone sees it another way, feel free to explain.”

    Looks like yet another Wild-Assed Guess to me!

  12. They wrote:
    It’s the first time that any experiment in the world has demonstrated the mechanism for how the gas-phase form of iodine—known as iodic acid—forms, and suggests it has an significant role in atmospheric particle formation.
    Then They Wrote:
    As human activity increases the availability of iodine in the atmosphere, due to our negative impacts on air quality around the world, this short-lived element’s impacts may be long-lasting. As sea ice melts in the Arctic, more iodine can enter the atmosphere, increase cloud cover and enhance warming effects on the region. And in the tropics, storms can send this iodine high into the atmosphere, where it impacts our protective ozone layer.

    They have found one more thing they can use for scare tactics. As sea ice thaws in the Arctic, it is thawed by the warmer currents of the Gulf Stream and naturally when more Arctic Ocean Surface is exposed to the Fierce Polar Winds, more water evaporates and causes more clouds and more snowfall on the Arctic Polar Sequestered Ice on Land, in and around the Arctic. The land ice builds, and the increased volume and weight forces the sequestered ice to flow and form Ice Shelves and great Icebergs are pushed into the turbulent Saltwater and the thawing ice in turbulent Saltwater chills the ocean currents to below freezing temperatures, just like in Ice Cream Makers, this is what forms Sea Ice and stops the evaporation and snowfall during the following colder time period. The Little Ice Age followed the Medieval Warm Period with thawed Arctic Ocean and more snowfall on sequestered ice which flowed and caused the Little Ice Age. Sea Ice is thawed and/or also formed underneath Sea Ice Cover, this is not primarily caused by changes in Atmosphere, it is caused by changes in turbulent saltwater temperatures due to the addition of more or less land ice.

    Climate People do not even study changes in Ice as any part of the dynamic alternating warmer and colder time periods, their Climate Energy Balance Charts, which are programed into their flawed climate models, does not have ice included, but now they may add iodine as another frightening factor.

  13. saighdear says:

    Didn’t think I wanted to comment on this topic, but “warming causes more ocean evaporation” and in the light of prev. comments, and whilst we regularly have salt on the windowpanes from Westerly storms, accelerated corrosion of bare exposed metal, etc., we will be having Iron and Manganese and what else can I think of, contaminating the air ( in the clouds). . Hmm, I thought steaming water was a form of distillation … for steaming, read boiling / evaporation of water alone. ….

  14. oldbrew says:

    Graphic from the article, by the co-lead author of the paper…

    Caption: Iodine is a common and highly reactive element, which can increase cloud cover and destroy ozone as a result of its chemical interactions. Scientists now understand how ionic acid (HIO3) forms in the atmosphere. Credit: Henning Finkenzeller

  15. ivan says:

    Since the people are no longer accepting of the climate scare narrative they have to change to something else that sounds scary. This won’t work either because the majority of people have seen the stupidity of the climate cult.

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